How to format your references using the Theoretical and Applied Genetics citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Theoretical and Applied Genetics. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
La Thangue NB (2002) Transcription. Chromatin control--a place for E2F and Myc to meet. Science 296:1034–1035
A journal article with 2 authors
Wu J, Izpisua Belmonte JC (2014) Stem cells: A designer’s guide to pluripotency. Nature 516:172–173
A journal article with 3 authors
Euler T, Detwiler PB, Denk W (2002) Directionally selective calcium signals in dendrites of starburst amacrine cells. Nature 418:845–852
A journal article with 5 or more authors
Ye D, Zheng G, Wang J, et al (2013) Negative group velocity in the absence of absorption resonance. Sci Rep 3:1628

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Ruiz J-L (2017) Supra-Gingival Minimally Invasive Dentistry. John Wiley & Sons, Inc., Hoboken, NJ
An edited book
Muhlbauer V, Chrisler JC (eds) (2007) Women Over 50: Psychological Perspectives. Springer US, Boston, MA
A chapter in an edited book
Karthik T, Rathinamoorthy R, Ganesan P (2015) Sustainable Luxury Natural Fibers—Production, Properties, and Prospects. In: Gardetti MA, Muthu SS (eds) Handbook of Sustainable Luxury Textiles and Fashion: Volume 1. Springer, Singapore, pp 59–98

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Theoretical and Applied Genetics.

Blog post
Andrew D (2016) Does Tapping A Can Of Fizzy Drink Really Stop It Foaming Over? In: IFLScience. Accessed 30 Oct 2018


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office (1988) Space Shuttle: NASA’s Major Changes to Flight Hardware. U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Carolina DS (2009) A qualitative study of the healthcare experiences and health information acquisition of African American men. Doctoral dissertation, University of Phoenix

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Rothenberg B (2016) U.S. Player Cleared in Meldonium Inquiry. New York Times B10

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (La Thangue 2002).
This sentence cites two references (La Thangue 2002; Wu and Izpisua Belmonte 2014).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Wu and Izpisua Belmonte 2014)
  • Three or more authors: (Ye et al. 2013)

About the journal

Full journal titleTheoretical and Applied Genetics
AbbreviationZüchter Genet. Breed. Res.
ISSN (print)0040-5752
ISSN (online)1432-2242
ScopeAgronomy and Crop Science
General Medicine

Other styles