How to format your references using the Theoretical and Applied Genetics citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Theoretical and Applied Genetics. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Kornilov O (2015) Chemical physics. The quantum halo state of the helium trimer. Science 348:498–499
A journal article with 2 authors
Carlip S, Vaidya S (2003) Cosmology: Do black holes constrain varying constants? Nature 421:498
A journal article with 3 authors
Akihiko T, Morioka Y, Behera SK (2014) Role of climate variability in the heatstroke death rates of Kanto region in Japan. Sci Rep 4:5655
A journal article with 5 or more authors
Aoki SK, Pamma R, Hernday AD, et al (2005) Contact-dependent inhibition of growth in Escherichia coli. Science 309:1245–1248

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Segal HP (2012) Utopias. Wiley-Blackwell, Oxford, UK
An edited book
Cavallaro L, Gollmann D (eds) (2013) Information Security Theory and Practice. Security of Mobile and Cyber-Physical Systems: 7th IFIP WG 11.2 International Workshop, WISTP 2013, Heraklion, Greece, May 28-30, 2013. Proceedings. Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg
A chapter in an edited book
Boughareb D, Farah N (2011) Toward a Web Search Personalization Approach Based on Temporal Context. In: Cherifi H, Zain JM, El-Qawasmeh E (eds) Digital Information and Communication Technology and Its Applications: International Conference, DICTAP 2011, Dijon, France, June 21-23, 2011. Proceedings, Part I. Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg, pp 33–44

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Theoretical and Applied Genetics.

Blog post
Andrew E (2015) 20 Awesome Science Experiments You Can Do Right Now At Home. In: IFLScience. Accessed 30 Oct 2018


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office (2004) Student Consolidation Loans: Further Analysis Could Lead to Enhanced Default Assumptions for Budgetary Cost Estimates. U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Green SW (2015) The influence of satisfaction among African American males on community college choices. Doctoral dissertation, Mississippi State University

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Brantley B (2017) A Den of Family Dysfunction. New York Times C6

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Kornilov 2015).
This sentence cites two references (Carlip and Vaidya 2003; Kornilov 2015).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Carlip and Vaidya 2003)
  • Three or more authors: (Aoki et al. 2005)

About the journal

Full journal titleTheoretical and Applied Genetics
AbbreviationZüchter Genet. Breed. Res.
ISSN (print)0040-5752
ISSN (online)1432-2242
ScopeAgronomy and Crop Science
General Medicine

Other styles