How to format your references using the Theoretical and Applied Genetics citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Theoretical and Applied Genetics. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Whitelegge J (2011) Structural biology. Up close with membrane lipid-protein complexes. Science 334:320–321
A journal article with 2 authors
Lukacs-Kornek V, Turley SJ (2008) Immunology. Chaperone puts the brakes on. Science 322:1640–1641
A journal article with 3 authors
Provencio I, Rollag MD, Castrucci AM (2002) Photoreceptive net in the mammalian retina. This mesh of cells may explain how some blind mice can still tell day from night. Nature 415:493
A journal article with 5 or more authors
Iaccarino HF, Singer AC, Martorell AJ, et al (2018) Author Correction: Gamma frequency entrainment attenuates amyloid load and modifies microglia. Nature 562:E1

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Simko SP (2012) Strategic Fixed Income Investing. John Wiley & Sons, Inc., Hoboken, NJ
An edited book
Hallinger P (2007) A Problem-based Approach for Management Education: Preparing Managers for Action. Springer Netherlands, Dordrecht
A chapter in an edited book
Liu Z-H, Cai R-X, Wang J (2006) Current Development in the Determination of Intracellular NADH Level. In: Geddes CD, Lakowicz JR (eds) Reviews in Fluorescence 2006. Springer US, Boston, MA, pp 107–124

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Theoretical and Applied Genetics.

Blog post
O`Callaghan J (2015) Elon Musk Says We Could Terraform Mars By Dropping Thermonuclear Bombs On It. In: IFLScience. Accessed 30 Oct 2018


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office (1999) Aviation Safety: Research Supports Limited Use of Personal Computer Aviation Training Devices for Pilots. U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Olszewski RM (2012) Donor Motivations for Donating to a Nonprofit Without a Previous Relationship. Doctoral dissertation, Northcentral University

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Haikalis G (2015) Don’t Rehab La Guardia Airport. Close It. New York Times A25

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Whitelegge 2011).
This sentence cites two references (Lukacs-Kornek and Turley 2008; Whitelegge 2011).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Lukacs-Kornek and Turley 2008)
  • Three or more authors: (Iaccarino et al. 2018)

About the journal

Full journal titleTheoretical and Applied Genetics
AbbreviationZüchter Genet. Breed. Res.
ISSN (print)0040-5752
ISSN (online)1432-2242
ScopeAgronomy and Crop Science
General Medicine

Other styles