How to format your references using the Theoretical and Applied Genetics citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Theoretical and Applied Genetics. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Holmes EC (2004) Virology. 1918 and all that. Science 303:1787–1788
A journal article with 2 authors
West SA, Peters AD (2000) Paying for sex is not easy. Nature 407:962
A journal article with 3 authors
Santos NC, Benz W, Mayor M (2005) Extrasolar planets: constraints for planet formation models. Science 310:251–255
A journal article with 5 or more authors
Zheng J-J, Zhao X, Zhao Y, Gao X (2013) Two-dimensional carbon compounds derived from graphyne with chemical properties superior to those of graphene. Sci Rep 3:1271

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Isobe K, Watanabe W, Itoh K (2013) Functional Imaging by Controlled Nonlinear Optical Phenomena. John Wiley & Sons, Inc., Hoboken, NJ
An edited book
Komatineni S (2013) Expert Android. Apress, Berkeley, CA
A chapter in an edited book
Dai Y, Steinberger J (2016) Indifferentiability of 8-Round Feistel Networks. In: Robshaw M, Katz J (eds) Advances in Cryptology – CRYPTO 2016: 36th Annual International Cryptology Conference, Santa Barbara, CA, USA, August 14-18, 2016, Proceedings, Part I. Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg, pp 95–120

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Theoretical and Applied Genetics.

Blog post
Andrews R (2016) US And China Ratify Paris Climate Deal In “Moment We Decided To Save Our Planet.” In: IFLScience. Accessed 30 Oct 2018


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office (1980) Policies on U.S. Citizens Studying Medicine Abroad Need Review and Reappraisal. U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Cuomo AP (2013) SB 48 and social media: Constituing an audience for and against California’s LGBT education legislation. Doctoral dissertation, California State University, Long Beach

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Lee L (2005) The Multimedia Frank Gehry Now in Cardboard and on Film. New York Times F3

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Holmes 2004).
This sentence cites two references (West and Peters 2000; Holmes 2004).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (West and Peters 2000)
  • Three or more authors: (Zheng et al. 2013)

About the journal

Full journal titleTheoretical and Applied Genetics
AbbreviationZüchter Genet. Breed. Res.
ISSN (print)0040-5752
ISSN (online)1432-2242
ScopeAgronomy and Crop Science
General Medicine

Other styles