How to format your references using the Theoretical and Applied Genetics citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Theoretical and Applied Genetics. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Ohlsson R (2007) Genetics. Widespread monoallelic expression. Science 318:1077–1078
A journal article with 2 authors
Gomez Perdiguero E, Geissmann F (2014) Cancer immunology. Identifying the infiltrators. Science 344:801–802
A journal article with 3 authors
Head IM, Jones DM, Larter SR (2003) Biological activity in the deep subsurface and the origin of heavy oil. Nature 426:344–352
A journal article with 5 or more authors
Lescano AG, Salmon-Mulanovich G, Pedroni E, Blazes DL (2007) Epidemiology. Outbreak investigation and response training. Science 318:574–575

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Liu E, Noppe-Brandon S (2011) Imagination First. Jossey-Bass, San Francisco, CA, USA
An edited book
Dorey P (2016) The British Coalition Government, 2010-2015: A Marriage of Inconvenience. Palgrave Macmillan UK, London
A chapter in an edited book
Sharma T, Low S, Foster PJ (2009) The Classification of Primary Angle-Closure Glaucoma. In: Grehn F, Stamper R (eds) Glaucoma. Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg, pp 41–48

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Theoretical and Applied Genetics.

Blog post
Andrew E (2015) Global Warming Is Bringing Spring Earlier To The U.S. In: IFLScience. Accessed 30 Oct 2018


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office (1987) Hazardous Weather Detection and Warning Systems. U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Shipe RL (2015) Creating productive ambiguity: A visual research narrative. Doctoral dissertation, University of Arizona

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Wagner J (2017) The Mets Believe Cabrera Could Be a Keeper. New York Times B9

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Ohlsson 2007).
This sentence cites two references (Ohlsson 2007; Gomez Perdiguero and Geissmann 2014).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Gomez Perdiguero and Geissmann 2014)
  • Three or more authors: (Lescano et al. 2007)

About the journal

Full journal titleTheoretical and Applied Genetics
AbbreviationZüchter Genet. Breed. Res.
ISSN (print)0040-5752
ISSN (online)1432-2242
ScopeAgronomy and Crop Science
General Medicine

Other styles