How to format your references using the Theoretical and Applied Genetics citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Theoretical and Applied Genetics. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Radom L (2004) Obituary: John A. Pople (1925-2004). Nature 428:816
A journal article with 2 authors
Lin Y, Zhang Z (2014) Mean first-passage time for maximal-entropy random walks in complex networks. Sci Rep 4:5365
A journal article with 3 authors
Touboul M, Puchtel IS, Walker RJ (2012) 182W evidence for long-term preservation of early mantle differentiation products. Science 335:1065–1069
A journal article with 5 or more authors
Katano Y, Nakano K, Otsuki M, Matsukawa H (2014) Novel friction law for the static friction force based on local precursor slipping. Sci Rep 4:6324

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Allerton D (2009) Principles of Flight Simulation. John Wiley & Sons, Ltd, Chichester, UK
An edited book
Schwab M (ed) (2009) Encyclopedia of Cancer. Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg
A chapter in an edited book
Shi H, Kurata Y (2010) Modeling Ontological Concepts of Locations with a Heterogeneous Cardinal Direction Model. In: Bi Y, Williams M-A (eds) Knowledge Science, Engineering and Management: 4th International Conference, KSEM 2010, Belfast, Northern Ireland, UK, September 1-3, 2010. Proceedings. Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg, pp 4–15

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Theoretical and Applied Genetics.

Blog post
Fang J (2015) New Croc-like Carnivore Preceded Dinosaurs. In: IFLScience. Accessed 30 Oct 2018


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office (2006) NASA: Sound Management and Oversight Key to Addressing Crew Exploration Vehicle Project Risks. U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Sharp K (2016) The Epistolary Form: A Familiar Fiction. Doctoral dissertation, George Washington University

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Shear MD (2017) President Questions Clinton Ties To Russia. New York Times A19

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Radom 2004).
This sentence cites two references (Radom 2004; Lin and Zhang 2014).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Lin and Zhang 2014)
  • Three or more authors: (Katano et al. 2014)

About the journal

Full journal titleTheoretical and Applied Genetics
AbbreviationZüchter Genet. Breed. Res.
ISSN (print)0040-5752
ISSN (online)1432-2242
ScopeAgronomy and Crop Science
General Medicine

Other styles