How to format your references using the Clinical Epidemiology and Global Health citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Clinical Epidemiology and Global Health. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Git A. Research tools: A recipe for disaster. Nature. 2012;484(7395):439-440.
A journal article with 2 authors
Eom Y-H, Jo H-H. Generalized friendship paradox in complex networks: the case of scientific collaboration. Sci Rep. 2014;4:4603.
A journal article with 3 authors
Wang J, Mei Y, Hicks D. Science communication. Comment on “Quantifying long-term scientific impact.” Science. 2014;345(6193):149.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
Kulkarni A, Kim B, Dugasani SR, et al. A novel nanometric DNA thin film as a sensor for alpha radiation. Sci Rep. 2013;3:2062.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Ash MK. The Mary Kay Way. John Wiley & Sons, Inc.; 2008.
An edited book
Li X, Pan J, eds. China Green Development Index Report 2011. Springer; 2013.
A chapter in an edited book
Vilanova R, Alfaro VM, Arrieta O. Robustness in PID Control. In: Vilanova R, Visioli A, eds. PID Control in the Third Millennium: Lessons Learned and New Approaches. Advances in Industrial Control. Springer; 2012:113-145.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Clinical Epidemiology and Global Health.

Blog post
Andrew E. Milky Way galaxy has four arms, not two. IFLScience. Published December 18, 2013. Accessed October 30, 2018.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. Aviation Safety: Opportunities Exist for FAA to Refine the Controller Staffing Process. U.S. Government Printing Office; 1997.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Cummings AE. Brain and behavior in children with phonological delays: Phonological, lexical, and sensory system interactions. Published online 2009.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Walsh MW. Puerto Rico to Restructure Up to $5.7 Billion in Debt. New York Times. September 3, 2015:B4.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in superscript:

This sentence cites one reference 1.
This sentence cites two references 1,2.
This sentence cites four references 1–4.

About the journal

Full journal titleClinical Epidemiology and Global Health
AbbreviationClin. Epidemiol. Glob. Health
ISSN (print)2213-3984

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