How to format your references using the The European Research Journal citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for The European Research Journal. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Dye C. Health and urban living. Science. 2008;319:766–69.
A journal article with 2 authors
Ganachaud A, Wunsch C. Improved estimates of global ocean circulation, heat transport and mixing from hydrographic data. Nature. 2000;408:453–57.
A journal article with 3 authors
Pickrell JK, Gilad Y, Pritchard JK. Comment on ‘Widespread RNA and DNA sequence differences in the human transcriptome’. Science. 2012;335:1302; author reply 1302.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
Cirelli C, Bushey D, Hill S, Huber R, Kreber R, Ganetzky B, et al. Reduced sleep in Drosophila Shaker mutants. Nature. 2005;434:1087–92.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Fisher RB, Breckon TP, Dawson-Howe K, Fitzgibbon A, Robertson C, Trucco E, et al. Dictionary of Computer Vision and Image Processing. Chichester, UK: John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. 2016.
An edited book
Agent Based Simulation for a Sustainable Society and Multi-agent Smart Computing: International Workshops, PRIMA 2011, Wollongong, Australia, November 14, 2011 Revised Selected Papers. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer. 2012.
A chapter in an edited book
Poveda RL, Gupta N. Thermal Expansion of CNF/Polymer Composites. In: Gupta N ed. Carbon Nanofiber Reinforced Polymer Composites. Cham: Springer International Publishing. 2016:53–62.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for The European Research Journal.

Blog post
Planets With A Companion Have A Better Chance Of Harbouring Life. ( Accessed 30 October 2018.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. Air Traffic Control: FAA Has Not Fully Assessed Its User Request Evaluation Tool. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office. 1998.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Lu Y-C. From confrontation to accommodation: China’s policy toward the U.S. in the post-Cold War era. 2009.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Etheredge P by G. The High Line. New York Times. 2016:RE9.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1, 2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleThe European Research Journal
ISSN (online)2149-3189

Other styles