How to format your references using the The European Research Journal citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for The European Research Journal. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Gwynne P. Microbiology: There’s gold in them there bugs. Nature. 2013;495:S12-3.
A journal article with 2 authors
Shaked Y, Rose A. Microbiology. Seas of superoxide. Science. 2013;340:1176–77.
A journal article with 3 authors
Ghimire A, Shafran E, Gerton JM. Using a sharp metal tip to control the polarization and direction of emission from a quantum dot. Sci. Rep. 2014;4:6456.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
Ghoshal T, Maity T, Senthamaraikannan R, Shaw MT, Carolan P, Holmes JD, et al. Size and space controlled hexagonal arrays of superparamagnetic iron oxide nanodots: magnetic studies and application. Sci. Rep. 2013;3:2772.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Khan MM, Islam MR. Zero Waste Engineering. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc. 2012.
An edited book
Computing and Intelligent Systems: International Conference, ICCIC 2011, Wuhan, China, September 17-18, 2011. Proceedings, Part IV. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer. 2011.
A chapter in an edited book
Roy U, Majumder M. Result and Discussion. In: Majumder M ed. Impact of Climate Change on Small Scale Hydro-turbine Selections. Singapore: Springer. 2016:19–41.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for The European Research Journal.

Blog post
Building Has Started On The Extremely Large Telescope. ( Accessed 30 October 2018.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. Space Shuttle: NASA’s Plans for Repairing or Replacing a Damaged or Destroyed Orbiter. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office. 1994.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Knoth KC. Biological Course-Based Undergraduate Research Experiences: An Examination of an Introductory Level Implementation. 2017.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Hay G, Currie A. Barclays’ Appetite For a U.S. Bank. New York Times. 2010:B2.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1, 2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleThe European Research Journal
ISSN (online)2149-3189

Other styles