How to format your references using the Theoretical and Applied Climatology citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Theoretical and Applied Climatology. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Vihinen M (2015) No more hidden solutions in bioinformatics. Nature 521:261
A journal article with 2 authors
Arinaminpathy N, Dowdy D (2015) Understanding the incremental value of novel diagnostic tests for tuberculosis. Nature 528:S60-7
A journal article with 3 authors
Sparks RSJ, Biggs J, Neuberg JW (2012) Geophysics. Monitoring volcanoes. Science 335:1310–1311
A journal article with 5 or more authors
Wang X, Hou Y, Zhu Y, et al (2013) An aqueous rechargeable lithium battery using coated Li metal as anode. Sci Rep 3:1401

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Coutts J (2013) Loft Conversions. Blackwell Publishing Ltd, Oxford
An edited book
Hall JC, Hall BJ (eds) (2015) Cutaneous Drug Eruptions: Diagnosis, Histopathology and Therapy. Springer, London
A chapter in an edited book
Zhao G, Chen K, Tan H, et al (2015) A Multilevel Security Model for Search Engine Over Integrated Data. In: Nguyen NT, Kowalczyk R, Xhafa F (eds) Transactions on Computational Collective Intelligence XIX. Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg, pp 45–68

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Theoretical and Applied Climatology.

Blog post
Andrew E (2015) Seismologists Deploy After A Quake To Learn More, So We Can Prepare For The Next One. In: IFLScience. Accessed 30 Oct 2018


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office (2012) Financial Management Systems: Status of OMB’s Review of Financial System Projects. U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Garcia-Benitez C (2010) Support program to facilitate achievement for emancipated foster youth to succeed in college. Doctoral dissertation, California State University, Long Beach

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Rothenberg B (2017) Ninth-Seeded Radwanska Exceeds Her Expectations. New York Times D3

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Vihinen 2015).
This sentence cites two references (Vihinen 2015; Arinaminpathy and Dowdy 2015).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Arinaminpathy and Dowdy 2015)
  • Three or more authors: (Wang et al. 2013)

About the journal

Full journal titleTheoretical and Applied Climatology
AbbreviationTheor. Appl. Climatol.
ISSN (print)0177-798X
ISSN (online)1434-4483
ScopeAtmospheric Science

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