How to format your references using the Environmental Research Letters citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Environmental Research Letters. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Schiermeier Q 2005 Small is beautiful Nature 435 532–3
A journal article with 2 authors
de Waal F B and Berger M L 2000 Payment for labour in monkeys Nature 404 563
A journal article with 3 authors
Whitney D, Westwood D A and Goodale M A 2003 The influence of visual motion on fast reaching movements to a stationary object Nature 423 869–73
A journal article with 99 or more authors
Wallace R J, Rooke J A, Duthie C-A, Hyslop J J, Ross D W, McKain N, de Souza S M, Snelling T J, Waterhouse A and Roehe R 2014 Archaeal abundance in post-mortem ruminal digesta may help predict methane emissions from beef cattle Sci. Rep. 4 5892

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Roy D and Rao G V 2012 Elements of Structural Dynamics (Chichester, UK: John Wiley & Sons, Ltd)
An edited book
Kotulski Z, Księżopolski B and Mazur K 2014 Cryptography and Security Systems: Third International Conference, CSS 2014, Lublin, Poland, September 22-24, 2014. Proceedings vol 448 (Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer)
A chapter in an edited book
Schierwater B and Kamm K 2010 The Early Evolution of Hox Genes: A Battle of Belief? Hox Genes: Studies from the 20th to the 21st Century Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology ed J S Deutsch (New York, NY: Springer) pp 81–90

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Environmental Research Letters.

Blog post
Andrew E 2015 Disney Creates Adorable Robot That Carves Cartoons Into The Sand IFLScience Online:


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office 2016 Aviation Security: TSA Should Ensure Testing Data Are Complete and Fully Used to Improve Screener Training and Operations (Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office)

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Valeika S R 2008 The epidemiology of varicella under a two -dose vaccination strategy: Results of a mathematical transmission model with a novel strategy of sensitivity analysis Doctoral dissertation (Chapel Hill, NC: University of North Carolina)

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Greenhouse L 2017 On Contraception, It’s Church Over State New York Times SR10

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Schiermeier 2005).
This sentence cites two references (Schiermeier 2005, de Waal and Berger 2000).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (de Waal and Berger 2000)
  • Three or more authors: (Wallace et al 2014)

About the journal

Full journal titleEnvironmental Research Letters
AbbreviationEnviron. Res. Lett.
ISSN (online)1748-9326
ScopeRenewable Energy, Sustainability and the Environment
General Environmental Science
Public Health, Environmental and Occupational Health

Other styles