How to format your references using the Environmental Research Letters citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Environmental Research Letters. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Koshland D E Jr 2002 Special essay. The seven pillars of life Science 295 2215–6
A journal article with 2 authors
de Waal F B and Berger M L 2000 Payment for labour in monkeys Nature 404 563
A journal article with 3 authors
Fuerstman M J, Garstecki P and Whitesides G M 2007 Coding/decoding and reversibility of droplet trains in microfluidic networks Science 315 828–32
A journal article with 99 or more authors
Chiba D, Yamanouchi M, Matsukura F and Ohno H 2003 Electrical manipulation of magnetization reversal in a ferromagnetic semiconductor Science 301 943–5

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Cayuela Valencia R 2013 The Future of the Chemical Industry by 2050 (Weinheim, Germany: Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA)
An edited book
Hodicky J 2014 Modelling and Simulation for Autonomous Systems: First International Workshop, MESAS 2014, Rome, Italy, May 5-6, 2014, Revised Selected Papers vol 8906 (Cham: Springer International Publishing)
A chapter in an edited book
Bucher T and Winter R 2010 Taxonomy of Business Process Management Approaches Handbook on Business Process Management 2: Strategic Alignment, Governance, People and Culture ed J vom Brocke and M Rosemann (Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer) pp 93–114

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Environmental Research Letters.

Blog post
Luntz S 2016 2015’s Recording-Breaking Temperatures Will Be “New Normal” Very Soon IFLScience Online:


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office 1976 Delegation of GSA Procurement Authority for Automatic Data Processing Equipment Acquisitions (Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office)

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Nevitt D S 2017 Organic Geochemical Proxies as Indicators of Paleoenvironmental Conditions and Source Sediment Provenance in the Chenier Plain, Vermilion and Cameron Parishes, Louisiana, USA Doctoral dissertation ( Lafayette, LA: University of Louisiana)

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Bennhold K and de la MERCED M J 2017 Uber Leader, in Visit to London, Appeals to Regain Operating License New York Times B6

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Koshland 2002).
This sentence cites two references (Koshland 2002, de Waal and Berger 2000).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (de Waal and Berger 2000)
  • Three or more authors: (Chiba et al 2003)

About the journal

Full journal titleEnvironmental Research Letters
AbbreviationEnviron. Res. Lett.
ISSN (online)1748-9326
ScopeRenewable Energy, Sustainability and the Environment
General Environmental Science
Public Health, Environmental and Occupational Health

Other styles