How to format your references using the Environmental Research Letters citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Environmental Research Letters. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Zaanen J 2007 Physics. Watching rush hour in the world of electrons Science 315 1372–3
A journal article with 2 authors
Shim M and Guyot-Sionnest P 2000 n-type colloidal semiconductor nanocrystals Nature 407 981–3
A journal article with 3 authors
Yang D-S, Lao C and Zewail A H 2008 4D electron diffraction reveals correlated unidirectional behavior in zinc oxide nanowires Science 321 1660–4
A journal article with 99 or more authors
Hrdy I, Hirt R P, Dolezal P, Bardonová L, Foster P G, Tachezy J and Embley T M 2004 Trichomonas hydrogenosomes contain the NADH dehydrogenase module of mitochondrial complex I Nature 432 618–22

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Teodorescu P P, Kecs W W and Toma A 2013 Distribution Theory (Weinheim, Germany: Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA)
An edited book
Tymieniecka A-T 2005 Human Creation between Reality and Illusion vol 87 (Dordrecht: Springer Netherlands)
A chapter in an edited book
Schnars U, Falldorf C, Watson J and Jüptner W 2015 Digital Holographic Interferometry (DHI) Digital Holography and Wavefront Sensing: Principles, Techniques and Applications ed C Falldorf, J Watson and W Jüptner (Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer) pp 69–94

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Environmental Research Letters.

Blog post
Carpineti A 2016 We Now Know Where Comet 67P Was Born IFLScience Online:


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office 2016 Freight Rail Pricing: Contracts Provide Shippers and Railroads Flexibility, but High Rates Concern Some Shippers (Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office)

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Hernandez I 2017 Strong-DISM: A First Attempt to a Dynamically Typed Assembly Language (D-TAL) Doctoral dissertation (Tampa, FL: University of South Florida)

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Chavez L 2011 Quotation of the Day New York Times A3

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Zaanen 2007).
This sentence cites two references (Zaanen 2007, Shim and Guyot-Sionnest 2000).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Shim and Guyot-Sionnest 2000)
  • Three or more authors: (Hrdy et al 2004)

About the journal

Full journal titleEnvironmental Research Letters
AbbreviationEnviron. Res. Lett.
ISSN (online)1748-9326
ScopeRenewable Energy, Sustainability and the Environment
General Environmental Science
Public Health, Environmental and Occupational Health

Other styles