How to format your references using the American Journal of Criminal Justice citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for American Journal of Criminal Justice. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Griffith, L. C. (2014). Neuroscience: What females really want. Nature, 512(7513), 138–139.
A journal article with 2 authors
Retchless, A. C., & Lawrence, J. G. (2007). Temporal fragmentation of speciation in bacteria. Science (New York, N.Y.), 317(5841), 1093–1096.
A journal article with 3 authors
Nandal, P., Ravella, S. R., & Kuhad, R. C. (2013). Laccase production by Coriolopsis caperata RCK2011: optimization under solid state fermentation by Taguchi DOE methodology. Scientific reports, 3, 1386.
A journal article with 8 or more authors
Hashimoto, A., Suenaga, K., Gloter, A., Urita, K., & Iijima, S. (2004). Direct evidence for atomic defects in graphene layers. Nature, 430(7002), 870–873.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Lalanne, C. (2014). Mechanical Shock. Chichester, UK: John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
An edited book
Fels, E., Kremer, J.-F., & Kronenberg, K. (Eds.). (2012). Power in the 21st Century: International Security and International Political Economy in a Changing World. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer.
A chapter in an edited book
Forni, V., Cugno, S., Rovaris, D., Cuzziol, P., Molinari, E., & Castelnuovo, G. (2010). La multidimensionalità del dolore: aspetti psicologici. In G. Castelnuovo (Ed.), Psicologia clinica del dolore (pp. 35–46). Milano: Springer.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for American Journal of Criminal Justice.

Blog post
Andrew, E. (2016, May 4). How Half Our Brain Keeps Watch When We Sleep In Unfamiliar Places. IFLScience. IFLScience. Accessed 30 October 2018


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. (2001). Public Assistance: PARIS Project Can Help States Reduce Improper Benefit Payments (No. GAO-01-935). Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Toothaker, R. D. (2014). A phenomenological study of millennial students and traditional pedagogies (Doctoral dissertation). University of Phoenix, Phoenix, AZ.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Dudziak, M. L. (2013, March 22). Obama’s Nixonian Precedent. New York Times, p. A29.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Griffith 2014).
This sentence cites two references (Griffith 2014; Retchless and Lawrence 2007).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Retchless and Lawrence 2007)
  • Three or more authors: (Hashimoto et al. 2004)

About the journal

Full journal titleAmerican Journal of Criminal Justice
AbbreviationAm. J. Crim. Justice
ISSN (print)1066-2316
ISSN (online)1936-1351

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