How to format your references using the American Journal of Criminal Justice citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for American Journal of Criminal Justice. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Greider, C. W. (2012). Molecular biology. Wnt regulates TERT--putting the horse before the cart. Science (New York, N.Y.), 336(6088), 1519–1520.
A journal article with 2 authors
Boyd, R. W., & Gauthier, D. J. (2009). Controlling the velocity of light pulses. Science (New York, N.Y.), 326(5956), 1074–1077.
A journal article with 3 authors
Thompson, R. J., Zhou, N., & MacVicar, B. A. (2006). Ischemia opens neuronal gap junction hemichannels. Science (New York, N.Y.), 312(5775), 924–927.
A journal article with 8 or more authors
Helenius, J., Ng, D. T. W., Marolda, C. L., Walter, P., Valvano, M. A., & Aebi, M. (2002). Translocation of lipid-linked oligosaccharides across the ER membrane requires Rft1 protein. Nature, 415(6870), 447–450.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Ginena, K., & Hamid, A. (2015). Foundations of Sharī‘ah Governance of Islamic Banks. Chichester, UK: John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
An edited book
Rossi, F. (2016). Controlled Drug Delivery Systems: Towards New Frontiers in Patient Care. (G. Perale & M. Masi, Eds.) (1st ed. 2016.). Cham: Springer International Publishing.
A chapter in an edited book
Wang, D. W. D. (2014). The Urban Village of Huanggang: A Successful Communal Model? In Z. Cheng, M. Wang, & J. Chen (Eds.), Urban China in the New Era: Market Reforms, Current State, and the Road Forward (pp. 63–83). Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for American Journal of Criminal Justice.

Blog post
Andrews, R. (2016, October 21). Global Wine Production Is Collapsing Thanks To Climate Change. IFLScience. IFLScience. Accessed 30 October 2018


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. (2008). Digital Television Transition: Information on the Implementation of the Converter Box Subsidy Program and Consumer Participation in the Program (No. GAO-08-1181T). Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Gallardo-Macias, R. (2009). Tin (II) compounds as novel catalysts for the Kabachnik-Fields reaction: Studies in the synthesis of alpha-aminophosphonates under solvent free conditions and Synthesis of phosphonates and phosphates as reversible and irreversible inhibitors of butyrylcholinesterase (Doctoral dissertation). California State University, Long Beach, Long Beach, CA.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
McWHORTER, J. (2017, January 21). How to Listen to Donald Trump Every Day for Years. New York Times, p. SR1.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Greider 2012).
This sentence cites two references (Boyd and Gauthier 2009; Greider 2012).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Boyd and Gauthier 2009)
  • Three or more authors: (Helenius et al. 2002)

About the journal

Full journal titleAmerican Journal of Criminal Justice
AbbreviationAm. J. Crim. Justice
ISSN (print)1066-2316
ISSN (online)1936-1351

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