How to format your references using the American Journal of Criminal Justice citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for American Journal of Criminal Justice. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Stierle, A. (2008). Materials science. Tracking corrosion cracking. Science (New York, N.Y.), 321(5887), 349–350.
A journal article with 2 authors
Kormendy, J., & Bender, R. (2011). Supermassive black holes do not correlate with dark matter haloes of galaxies. Nature, 469(7330), 377–380.
A journal article with 3 authors
Wilmé, L., Goodman, S. M., & Ganzhorn, J. U. (2006). Biogeographic evolution of Madagascar’s microendemic biota. Science (New York, N.Y.), 312(5776), 1063–1065.
A journal article with 8 or more authors
Lander, G. C., Tang, L., Casjens, S. R., Gilcrease, E. B., Prevelige, P., Poliakov, A., et al. (2006). The structure of an infectious P22 virion shows the signal for headful DNA packaging. Science (New York, N.Y.), 312(5781), 1791–1795.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Jevon, P. (2012). Paediatric Advanced Life Support. West Sussex, UK: John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
An edited book
Yülek, M. (Ed.). (2015). Economic Planning and Industrial Policy in the Globalizing Economy: Concepts, Experience and Prospects (Vol. 13). Cham: Springer International Publishing.
A chapter in an edited book
Parker, D. (2014). Activation of Type I IFN Signaling by Staphylococcus aureus. In D. Parker (Ed.), Bacterial Activation of Type I Interferons (pp. 61–69). Cham: Springer International Publishing.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for American Journal of Criminal Justice.

Blog post
Andrew, E. (2015, August 4). Brain Training App Could Help Schizophrenia Patients. IFLScience. IFLScience. Accessed 30 October 2018


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. (1990). Stafford Student Loans: Millions of Dollars in Loans Awarded to Ineligible Borrowers (No. IMTEC-91-7). Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
McGrath, P. M. (2013). Mental Health Parity and Addiction Equity Act of 2008: A policy analysis (Doctoral dissertation). California State University, Long Beach, Long Beach, CA.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Brantley, B. (2017, August 25). A Prince’s Kingdom is Scattered to the Winds. New York Times, p. C1.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Stierle 2008).
This sentence cites two references (Kormendy and Bender 2011; Stierle 2008).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Kormendy and Bender 2011)
  • Three or more authors: (Lander et al. 2006)

About the journal

Full journal titleAmerican Journal of Criminal Justice
AbbreviationAm. J. Crim. Justice
ISSN (print)1066-2316
ISSN (online)1936-1351

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