How to format your references using the American Journal of Criminal Justice citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for American Journal of Criminal Justice. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Freeman, K. C. (2003). Astronomy. The hunt for dark matter in galaxies. Science (New York, N.Y.), 302(5652), 1902–1903.
A journal article with 2 authors
Hirsh, A. E., & Fraser, H. B. (2001). Protein dispensability and rate of evolution. Nature, 411(6841), 1046–1049.
A journal article with 3 authors
Beachy, P. A., Karhadkar, S. S., & Berman, D. M. (2004). Mending and malignancy. Nature, 431(7007), 402.
A journal article with 8 or more authors
Taylor, S. S., Hardwick, K. G., Sawin, K. E., Biggins, S., Piatti, S., Khodjakov, A., et al. (2007). Comment on “A centrosome-independent role for gamma-TuRC proteins in the spindle assembly checkpoint.” Science (New York, N.Y.), 316(5827), 982; author reply 982.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Packard, A. (2010). Digital Media Law. Oxford, UK: Wiley-Blackwell.
An edited book
Bartezzaghi, E., Cagliano, R., Caniato, F., & Ronchi, S. (Eds.). (2016). A Journey through Manufacturing and Supply Chain Strategy Research: A Tribute to Professor Gianluca Spina. Cham: Springer International Publishing.
A chapter in an edited book
Kibler, B., Fatome, J., Finot, C., & Millot, G. (2016). Experiments on Breathers in Nonlinear Fibre Optics. In M. Onorato, S. Resitori, & F. Baronio (Eds.), Rogue and Shock Waves in Nonlinear Dispersive Media (pp. 89–115). Cham: Springer International Publishing.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for American Journal of Criminal Justice.

Blog post
Fang, J. (2015, October 15). Fossils Reveal That Modern Humans Were Living In China 20,000 Years Before We Thought They Left Africa. IFLScience. IFLScience. Accessed 30 October 2018


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. (1973). Opportunities for Improvement in the Administration of Technical Training Activities (No. B-175773). Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Schroeder, M. (2017). Investigating the Learnability of a Rogue Grammar: Null Subject Parameter Resetting in Second Language Acquisition (Doctoral dissertation). Southern Illinois University, Edwardsville, IL.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Kelly, M. (1992, September 28). THE 1992 CAMPAIGN: The Democrats; Clinton Uses Farm Speech to Begin New Offensive. New York Times, p. A13.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Freeman 2003).
This sentence cites two references (Freeman 2003; Hirsh and Fraser 2001).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Hirsh and Fraser 2001)
  • Three or more authors: (Taylor et al. 2007)

About the journal

Full journal titleAmerican Journal of Criminal Justice
AbbreviationAm. J. Crim. Justice
ISSN (print)1066-2316
ISSN (online)1936-1351

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