How to format your references using the American Journal of Criminal Justice citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for American Journal of Criminal Justice. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Eisenstein, M. (2014). Molecular biology: Remove, reuse, recycle. Nature, 514(7522), S2-4.
A journal article with 2 authors
Klitzman, R., & Appelbaum, P. S. (2012). Research ethics. To protect human subjects, review what was done, not proposed. Science (New York, N.Y.), 335(6076), 1576–1577.
A journal article with 3 authors
Raebiger, H., Lany, S., & Zunger, A. (2008). Charge self-regulation upon changing the oxidation state of transition metals in insulators. Nature, 453(7196), 763–766.
A journal article with 8 or more authors
Siwick, B. J., Dwyer, J. R., Jordan, R. E., & Miller, R. J. D. (2003). An atomic-level view of melting using femtosecond electron diffraction. Science (New York, N.Y.), 302(5649), 1382–1385.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Levin, R. (2011). Implementing the Wealth Management Index. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
An edited book
Gurevych, I., & Kim, J. (Eds.). (2013). The People’s Web Meets NLP: Collaboratively Constructed Language Resources. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer.
A chapter in an edited book
Berthold, J., & Loogen, R. (2007). Parallel Coordination Made Explicit in a Functional Setting. In Z. Horváth, V. Zsók, & A. Butterfield (Eds.), Implementation and Application of Functional Languages: 18th International Symposium, IFL 2006, Budapest, Hungary, September 4-6, 2006, Revised Selected Papers (pp. 73–90). Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for American Journal of Criminal Justice.

Blog post
Carpineti, A. (2016, June 23). Exoplanet Infographics Highlights The Lack Of Twin Earths. IFLScience. IFLScience. Accessed 30 October 2018


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. (1989). The SEMATECH Consortium’s Start-up Activities (No. T-RCED-90-11). Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Than, K. (2015). The impact of companion pets on the well-being of older adults (Doctoral dissertation). California State University, Long Beach, Long Beach, CA.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Chira, S. (2017, April 14). Is This How a Woman Could Win? New York Times, p. SR4.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Eisenstein 2014).
This sentence cites two references (Eisenstein 2014; Klitzman and Appelbaum 2012).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Klitzman and Appelbaum 2012)
  • Three or more authors: (Siwick et al. 2003)

About the journal

Full journal titleAmerican Journal of Criminal Justice
AbbreviationAm. J. Crim. Justice
ISSN (print)1066-2316
ISSN (online)1936-1351

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