How to format your references using the The Visual Computer citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for The Visual Computer. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Mollenauer, L.F.: Physics. Nonlinear optics in fibers. Science. 302, 996–997 (2003)
A journal article with 2 authors
Margueron, R., Reinberg, D.: The Polycomb complex PRC2 and its mark in life. Nature. 469, 343–349 (2011)
A journal article with 3 authors
Sachs, R., Lin, Z., Shi, J.: Ferroelectric-like SrTiO3 surface dipoles probed by graphene. Sci. Rep. 4, 3657 (2014)
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Jin, H., Sperka, T., Herrlich, P., Morrison, H.: Tumorigenic transformation by CPI-17 through inhibition of a merlin phosphatase. Nature. 442, 576–579 (2006)

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Kraehmer, H., Baur, P.: Weed Anatomy. Wiley-Blackwell, Oxford, UK (2013)
An edited book
Verhelst, M.: Energy Scalable Radio Design: for Pulsed UWB Communication and Ranging. Springer Netherlands, Dordrecht (2009)
A chapter in an edited book
Gehrlein, W.V., Lepelley, D.: Other Voting Paradoxes. In: Lepelley, D. (ed.) Voting Paradoxes and Group Coherence: The Condorcet Efficiency of Voting Rules. pp. 123–155. Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg (2011)

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for The Visual Computer.

Blog post
Andrew, E.: Is Venus Still Erupting?


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office: Teacher Training: Over $1.5 Billion Federal Funds Invested in Many Programs. U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC (1999)

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Simone, P.S.: A mixed methods study of culturally proficient practices in an elementary school, (2012)

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Gordon, M.R., Schmitt, E.: Showdown Expected in the Euphrates Valley, but It’s Complicated, (2017)

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1, 2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleThe Visual Computer
AbbreviationVis. Comput.
ISSN (print)0178-2789
ISSN (online)1432-2315
ScopeComputer Graphics and Computer-Aided Design
Computer Vision and Pattern Recognition

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