How to format your references using the The Visual Computer citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for The Visual Computer. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Yeo, P.: (And they call it) guppy love. Nature. 446, 948 (2007)
A journal article with 2 authors
Karim, S.S.A., Karim, Q.A.: AIDS research must link to local policy. Nature. 463, 733–734 (2010)
A journal article with 3 authors
Lykke-Andersen, J., Shu, M.D., Steitz, J.A.: Communication of the position of exon-exon junctions to the mRNA surveillance machinery by the protein RNPS1. Science. 293, 1836–1839 (2001)
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Li, X., Perissi, V., Liu, F., Rose, D.W., Rosenfeld, M.G.: Tissue-specific regulation of retinal and pituitary precursor cell proliferation. Science. 297, 1180–1183 (2002)

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Harrison, R.G.: Meteorological Measurements and Instrumentation. John Wiley & Sons, Ltd, Chichester, UK (2014)
An edited book
Azzerboni, B., Asti, G., Pareti, L., Ghidini, M. eds: Magnetic Nanostructures in Modern Technology: Spintronics, Magnetic MEMS and Recording. Springer Netherlands, Dordrecht (2008)
A chapter in an edited book
Inman, A.G., Tummala-Narra, P.: Immigration and Human Rights. In: Miville, M.L. and Ferguson, A.D. (eds.) Handbook of Race-Ethnicity and Gender in Psychology. pp. 87–109. Springer, New York, NY (2014)

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for The Visual Computer.

Blog post
Hale, T.: Giant 10-Meter-Long Anaconda Found On Construction Site In Brazil


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office: Meeting the Aviation Challenges of the 1990s: Experts Define Key Problems and Identify Emerging Issues. U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC (1991)

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Kalavacherla, R.S.: DFT study of the improved performance of oxygen reduction reaction on gold-copper alloy in a PEM fuel cell, (2017)

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Barron, J.: A Rural Retreat for New York City’s Angels and Gargoyles, (2017)

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1, 2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleThe Visual Computer
AbbreviationVis. Comput.
ISSN (print)0178-2789
ISSN (online)1432-2315
ScopeComputer Graphics and Computer-Aided Design
Computer Vision and Pattern Recognition

Other styles