How to format your references using the The Visual Computer citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for The Visual Computer. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
von Hohenheim, T.: A leap of faith. Nature. 407, 949 (2000)
A journal article with 2 authors
Levitt, S.D., List, J.A.: Economics. Homo economicus evolves. Science. 319, 909–910 (2008)
A journal article with 3 authors
Unniraman, S., Fugmann, S.D., Schatz, D.G.: Immunology. UNGstoppable switching. Science. 305, 1113–1114 (2004)
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Naruse, M., Tani, T., Yasuda, H., Tate, N., Ohtsu, M., Naya, M.: Randomness in highly reflective silver nanoparticles and their localized optical fields. Sci. Rep. 4, 6077 (2014)

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Duggan, D.: Enterprise Software Architecture and Design. John Wiley & Sons, Inc., Hoboken, NJ (2012)
An edited book
Stickler, B.A.: Basic Concepts in Computational Physics. Springer International Publishing, Cham (2016)
A chapter in an edited book
Mottola, G.: La valvola polmonare. In: Sheppard, M., Pepper, J., and Rigby, M. (eds.) Ecocardiografia clinica. pp. 79–88. Springer, Milano (2006)

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for The Visual Computer.

Blog post
Carpineti, A.: Planetary Harmony Keeps The Trappist-1 System Intact


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office: Environmental Protection: Research and Development of Plasma Arc Technology Used to Treat Hazardous Waste. U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC (1999)

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Chiang, I.-C.: A historical technique from a modern perspective: The transcription scordatura in Mozart’s Sinfonia Concertante for Violin, Viola and Orchestra in E-flat major, K. 364, (2010)

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Greenhouse, L.: As to the Direction of the Roberts Court: The Jury Is Still Out, (2007)

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1, 2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleThe Visual Computer
AbbreviationVis. Comput.
ISSN (print)0178-2789
ISSN (online)1432-2315
ScopeComputer Graphics and Computer-Aided Design
Computer Vision and Pattern Recognition

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