How to format your references using the Frontiers in Brain Imaging Methods citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Frontiers in Brain Imaging Methods. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Mazzarello, P. (2000). What dreams may come? Nature 408, 523.
A journal article with 2 authors
Shapiro, E., and Gil, B. (2008). Cell biology. RNA computing in a living cell. Science 322, 387–388.
A journal article with 3 authors
Weil, D., Graham, M., and Fung, A. (2013). Science and regulation. Targeting transparency. Science 340, 1410–1411.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
Chiti, F., Stefani, M., Taddei, N., Ramponi, G., and Dobson, C. M. (2003). Rationalization of the effects of mutations on peptide and protein aggregation rates. Nature 424, 805–808.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Smith, V. (2012). Toni Morrison. Chichester, UK: John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
An edited book
Scott-Conner, C. E. H. ed. (2014). Chassin’s Operative Strategy in General Surgery: An Expositive Atlas. 4th ed. 2014. New York, NY: Springer.
A chapter in an edited book
Abdelnour-Nocera, J., and Sharp, H. (2008). “Adopting Agile in a Large Organisation,” in Agile Processes in Software Engineering and Extreme Programming: 9th International Conference, XP 2008, Limerick, Ireland, June 10-14, 2008. Proceedings Lecture Notes in Business Information Processing., eds. P. Abrahamsson, R. Baskerville, K. Conboy, B. Fitzgerald, L. Morgan, and X. Wang (Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer), 42–52.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Frontiers in Brain Imaging Methods.

Blog post
Andrew, E. (2014). Scientists Remotely Activate Genetic Target To Slow Aging Process. IFLScience. Available at: [Accessed October 30, 2018].


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office (1993). Transportation: Federal Assessments Levied on Commercial Maritime Industry. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Kuqi, K. (2013). A matrix-Based Method for Optimizing the User Interface Design of Electronic Medical Record Systems.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Rothenberg, B. (2017). Nadal Seeks to Recapture Wimbledon Success. New York Times, B13.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Mazzarello, 2000).
This sentence cites two references (Mazzarello, 2000; Shapiro and Gil, 2008).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Shapiro and Gil, 2008)
  • Three or more authors: (Chiti et al., 2003)

About the journal

Full journal titleFrontiers in Brain Imaging Methods
AbbreviationFront. Neurosci.
ISSN (online)1662-453X
ScopeGeneral Neuroscience

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