How to format your references using the Frontiers in Brain Imaging Methods citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Frontiers in Brain Imaging Methods. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Peters, K. (2005). Obituary: Saunders Mac Lane (1909-2005). Nature 435, 292.
A journal article with 2 authors
Kaminski, D., and Geisler, C. (2012). Survival analysis of faculty retention in science and engineering by gender. Science 335, 864–866.
A journal article with 3 authors
Kiesecker, J. M., Blaustein, A. R., and Belden, L. K. (2001). Complex causes of amphibian population declines. Nature 410, 681–684.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
Tanaka, H., Homma, K., Iwane, A. H., Katayama, E., Ikebe, R., Saito, J., et al. (2002). The motor domain determines the large step of myosin-V. Nature 415, 192–195.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Polushkin, V. (2005). Nuclear Electronics. Chichester, UK: John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
An edited book
Ehrentraut, D., Meissner, E., and Bockowski, M. eds. (2010). Technology of Gallium Nitride Crystal Growth. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer.
A chapter in an edited book
Sobolev, S. L. (2006). “On a New Method of Solving Problems about Propagation of Vibrations,” in Selected Works of S.L. Sobolev: Volume I: Mathematical Physics, Computational Mathematics, and Cubature Formulas, eds. G. V. Demidenko and V. L. Vaskevich (Boston, MA: Springer US), 169–193.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Frontiers in Brain Imaging Methods.

Blog post
Davis, J. (2015). Zimbabwe Sell 24 Wild-Caught Baby Elephants to China. IFLScience. Available at: [Accessed October 30, 2018].


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office (1989). Computer Systems: Types and Sources of Department of State Lookout Records. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Young, W. B. (2017). First-Generation Undergraduate Researchers: Engaging and Validating Cultural Wealth-Based Self-Authors.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Feeney, K. (2008). Freshness City Dwellers Hunger For. New York Times, NJ11.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Peters, 2005).
This sentence cites two references (Kaminski and Geisler, 2012; Peters, 2005).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Kaminski and Geisler, 2012)
  • Three or more authors: (Tanaka et al., 2002)

About the journal

Full journal titleFrontiers in Brain Imaging Methods
AbbreviationFront. Neurosci.
ISSN (online)1662-453X
ScopeGeneral Neuroscience

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