How to format your references using the Frontiers in Brain Imaging Methods citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Frontiers in Brain Imaging Methods. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Koen, D. (2005). Nuts and bolts. Online applications. Nature 433, 90.
A journal article with 2 authors
Kirkwood, T. B., and Austad, S. N. (2000). Why do we age? Nature 408, 233–238.
A journal article with 3 authors
Tuthill, P. G., Monnier, J. D., and Danchi, W. C. (2001). A dusty torus around the luminous young star LkH alpha101. Nature 409, 1012–1014.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
Sumikura, H., Kuramochi, E., Taniyama, H., and Notomi, M. (2014). Ultrafast spontaneous emission of copper-doped silicon enhanced by an optical nanocavity. Sci. Rep. 4, 5040.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Teague, K. A., and Gallicchio, N. (2017). The Evolution of Meteorology. Chichester, UK: John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
An edited book
Bebis, G., Boyle, R., Parvin, B., Koracin, D., Li, B., Porikli, F., et al. eds. (2013). Advances in Visual Computing: 9th International Symposium, ISVC 2013, Rethymnon, Crete, Greece, July 29-31, 2013. Proceedings, Part II. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer.
A chapter in an edited book
Wu, L., Benavides, R., Porras, A., Garcia-Amaris, R. A., and Arevalo, J. F. (2009). “Angiography of Macular Diseases,” in Retinal Angiography and Optical Coherence Tomography, ed. J. F. Arevalo (New York, NY: Springer), 61–103.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Frontiers in Brain Imaging Methods.

Blog post
Carpineti, C. (2017). Melting Ice Could Unleash Ancient Viruses. IFLScience. Available at: [Accessed October 30, 2018].


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office (1994). Air Traffic Control: Better Guidance Needed for Deciding Where to Locate Facilities and Equipment. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Young, W. (2012). Diamagnetism of a supersonic rotating magnetized plasma.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Wagner, J. (2017). ‘Trade’ Ensures Duda Can’t Shake That Pesky Instagram Account. New York Times, B8.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Koen, 2005).
This sentence cites two references (Kirkwood and Austad, 2000; Koen, 2005).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Kirkwood and Austad, 2000)
  • Three or more authors: (Sumikura et al., 2014)

About the journal

Full journal titleFrontiers in Brain Imaging Methods
AbbreviationFront. Neurosci.
ISSN (online)1662-453X
ScopeGeneral Neuroscience

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