How to format your references using the Frontiers in Brain Imaging Methods citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Frontiers in Brain Imaging Methods. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Nel, A. (2005). Atmosphere. Air pollution-related illness: effects of particles. Science 308, 804–806.
A journal article with 2 authors
Palleroni, A., and Hauser, M. (2003). Experience-dependent plasticity for auditory processing in a raptor. Science 299, 1195.
A journal article with 3 authors
Yoshino, T., Walter, M. J., and Katsura, T. (2003). Core formation in planetesimals triggered by permeable flow. Nature 422, 154–157.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
Burks, D. J., Font de Mora, J., Schubert, M., Withers, D. J., Myers, M. G., Towery, H. H., et al. (2000). IRS-2 pathways integrate female reproduction and energy homeostasis. Nature 407, 377–382.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Hackshaw, A. (2010). How to Write a Grant Application. Oxford, UK: Wiley-Blackwell.
An edited book
Porfilio, B. J., and Ford, D. R. eds. (2015). Leaders in Critical Pedagogy: Narratives for Understanding and Solidarity. Rotterdam: SensePublishers.
A chapter in an edited book
Flaxman, M., and Vargas-Moreno, J. C. (2012). “Using ‘Spatial Resilience Planning’ to Test Climate-Adaptive Conservation Strategies,” in Restoring Lands - Coordinating Science, Politics and Action: Complexities of Climate and Governance, eds. H. A. Karl, L. Scarlett, J. C. Vargas-Moreno, and M. Flaxman (Dordrecht: Springer Netherlands), 57–83.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Frontiers in Brain Imaging Methods.

Blog post
Taub, B. (2016). Ancient Temple To God Of Wind Discovered Beneath Mexican Supermarket. IFLScience. Available at: [Accessed October 30, 2018].


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office (1994). Aviation Security. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Mills, C. C. (2017). Olfaction and Exhibition: Assessing the Impact of Scent in Museums on Exhibit Engagement, Learning and Empathy.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
McKINLEY, J. C., Jr., and Rojas, R. (2016). An Impostor’s Lives and Lies. New York Times, MB1.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Nel, 2005).
This sentence cites two references (Palleroni and Hauser, 2003; Nel, 2005).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Palleroni and Hauser, 2003)
  • Three or more authors: (Burks et al., 2000)

About the journal

Full journal titleFrontiers in Brain Imaging Methods
AbbreviationFront. Neurosci.
ISSN (online)1662-453X
ScopeGeneral Neuroscience

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