How to format your references using the Frontiers in Brain Imaging Methods citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Frontiers in Brain Imaging Methods. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Hurst, J. K. (2010). Chemistry. In pursuit of water oxidation catalysts for solar fuel production. Science 328, 315–316.
A journal article with 2 authors
Clark, C. M., and Tilman, D. (2008). Loss of plant species after chronic low-level nitrogen deposition to prairie grasslands. Nature 451, 712–715.
A journal article with 3 authors
Koskinen, T. T., Aylward, A. D., and Miller, S. (2007). A stability limit for the atmospheres of giant extrasolar planets. Nature 450, 845–848.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
Badro, J., Fiquet, G., Guyot, F., Rueff, J.-P., Struzhkin, V. V., Vankó, G., et al. (2003). Iron partitioning in Earth’s mantle: toward a deep lower mantle discontinuity. Science 300, 789–791.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Bertolini, L., Elsener, B., Pedeferri, P., and Polder, R. B. (2003). Corrosion of Steel in Concrete. Weinheim, FRG: Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA.
An edited book
Ortuño, F., and Rojas, I. eds. (2015). Bioinformatics and Biomedical Engineering: Third International Conference, IWBBIO 2015, Granada, Spain, April 15-17, 2015. Proceedings, Part II. Cham: Springer International Publishing.
A chapter in an edited book
Zhang, H., Dong, X., Cao, Z., and Shen, J. (2015). “4P_VES: A Collusion-Resistant Accountable Virtual Economy System,” in Information and Communications Security: 16th International Conference, ICICS 2014, Hong Kong, China, December 16-17, 2014, Revised Selected Papers Lecture Notes in Computer Science., eds. L. C. K. Hui, S. H. Qing, E. Shi, and S. M. Yiu (Cham: Springer International Publishing), 61–73.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Frontiers in Brain Imaging Methods.

Blog post
Davis, J. (2016). Neurons In Mice Found To Be Influenced By Environment Rather Than Genetics. IFLScience. Available at: [Accessed October 30, 2018].


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office (1991). Highway Demonstration Projects: Improved Selection and Funding Controls Are Needed. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Ionedes, N. J. (2008). An exploration of social interest therapy as a treatment for depression in the elderly.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Rojas, R. (2015). Brooklyn Heroin Ring Shut Down, Officials Say; 25 Are Charged. New York Times, A24.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Hurst, 2010).
This sentence cites two references (Clark and Tilman, 2008; Hurst, 2010).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Clark and Tilman, 2008)
  • Three or more authors: (Badro et al., 2003)

About the journal

Full journal titleFrontiers in Brain Imaging Methods
AbbreviationFront. Neurosci.
ISSN (online)1662-453X
ScopeGeneral Neuroscience

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