How to format your references using the The Spine Journal citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for The Spine Journal. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:


PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
[1]
Nudo RJ. Rehabilitation: Boost for movement. Nature 2015;527:314–5.
A journal article with 2 authors
[1]
Luzzatto L, Notaro R. Malaria. Protecting against bad air. Science 2001;293:442–3.
A journal article with 3 authors
[1]
Ben-Yehuda S, Rudner DZ, Losick R. RacA, a bacterial protein that anchors chromosomes to the cell poles. Science 2003;299:532–6.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
[1]
Recker M, Nee S, Bull PC, Kinyanjui S, Marsh K, Newbold C, et al. Transient cross-reactive immune responses can orchestrate antigenic variation in malaria. Nature 2004;429:555–8.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
[1]
Al-Shuhail AA, Al-Dossary SA, Mousa WA. Seismic Data Interpretation using Digital Image Processing. Chichester, UK: John Wiley & Sons, Ltd; 2017.
An edited book
[1]
Bagchi A. Natural Convection in Superposed Fluid-Porous Layers. New York, NY: Springer; 2014.
A chapter in an edited book
[1]
Fowler D, Smith R, Muller J, Cape JN, Sutton M, Erisman JW, et al. Long Term Trends in Sulphur and Nitrogen Deposition in Europe and the Cause of Non-linearities. In: Brimblecombe P, Hara H, Houle D, Novak M, editors. Acid Rain - Deposition to Recovery, Dordrecht: Springer Netherlands; 2007, p. 41–7.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for The Spine Journal.

Blog post
[1]
Andrew E. New Report On GE Crops Avoids Simple Answers – And That’s The Point, Study Members Say. IFLScience 2016.

Reports

This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
[1]
Government Accountability Office. National Airspace System: FAA’s Approach to Its New Communications System Appears Prudent, but Challenges Remain. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office; 2002.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
[1]
Claar PL. A Correlational Study Comparing the Relationship between School Leader Intercultural Development, Selected Demographic Variables, and Student Achievement. Doctoral dissertation. Pepperdine University, 2017.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
[1]
Norton MB. Finding More Founders. New York Times 2011:BR20.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleThe Spine Journal
AbbreviationSpine J.
ISSN (print)1529-9430
ScopeClinical Neurology
Surgery

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