How to format your references using the The Spine Journal citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for The Spine Journal. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:


PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
[1]
Carthew RW. Molecular biology. A new RNA dimension to genome control. Science 2006;313:305–6.
A journal article with 2 authors
[1]
Thomas GL, Thorne RE. Night-time predation by Steller sea lions. Nature 2001;411:1013.
A journal article with 3 authors
[1]
Hristov TS, Miller SD, Friehe CA. Dynamical coupling of wind and ocean waves through wave-induced air flow. Nature 2003;422:55–8.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
[1]
Lay AJ, Jiang XM, Kisker O, Flynn E, Underwood A, Condron R, et al. Phosphoglycerate kinase acts in tumour angiogenesis as a disulphide reductase. Nature 2000;408:869–73.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
[1]
Esmailzadeh R. Broadband Wireless Communications Business. Chichester, UK: John Wiley & Sons, Ltd; 2006.
An edited book
[1]
Knafl GJ. Adaptive Regression for Modeling Nonlinear Relationships. Cham: Springer International Publishing; 2016.
A chapter in an edited book
[1]
Antolìn AG, Garcìa JP, Gòmez JLS. Radial Basis Function Networks and their Application in Communication Systems. In: Andina D, Pham DT, editors. Computational Intelligence: for Engineering and Manufacturing, Boston, MA: Springer US; 2007, p. 109–30.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for The Spine Journal.

Blog post
[1]
Felton J. Flat-Earther Confronts NASA Scientist In Starbucks, Scientist Reacts Brilliantly. IFLScience 2017. https://www.iflscience.com/space/flat-earther-confronts-nasa-scientist-in-starbucks-it-did-not-go-well/ (accessed October 30, 2018).

Reports

This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
[1]
Government Accountability Office. College-and-Career Readiness: States Have Made Progress in Implementing New Standards and Assessments, but Challenges Remain. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office; 2014.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
[1]
Viramontes M. Parenting styles and practices and their impact on school behavior. Doctoral dissertation. California State University, Long Beach, 2009.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
[1]
Saslow L. New President for the Long Island Rail Road. New York Times 2007:LI2.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleThe Spine Journal
AbbreviationSpine J.
ISSN (print)1529-9430
ScopeClinical Neurology
Surgery

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