How to format your references using the GigaScience citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for GigaScience. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
1. Markov IL. Limits on fundamental limits to computation. Nature. 2014;512:147–54.
A journal article with 2 authors
1. Wang R, Yan X. Superior asymmetric supercapacitor based on Ni-Co oxide nanosheets and carbon nanorods. Sci Rep. 2014;4:3712.
A journal article with 3 authors
1. Huang X, Xu Y, Karato S-I. Water content in the transition zone from electrical conductivity of wadsleyite and ringwoodite. Nature. 2005;434:746–9.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
1. Johnson JB, Lees JM, Gerst A, Sahagian D, Varley N. Long-period earthquakes and co-eruptive dome inflation seen with particle image velocimetry. Nature. 2008;456:377–81.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
1. Burnham D, Skilleås OM. The Aesthetics of Wine. Chichester, UK: John Wiley & Sons, Ltd; 2012.
An edited book
1. Kalia S, Haldorai Y, editors. Organic-Inorganic Hybrid Nanomaterials. Cham: Springer International Publishing; 2015.
A chapter in an edited book
1. Yehudai A. Perspective on Computer Science Education. In: Hromkovič J, Královič R, Vahrenhold J, editors. Teaching Fundamentals Concepts of Informatics: 4th International Conference on Informatics in Secondary Schools - Evolution and Perspectives, ISSEP 2010, Zurich, Switzerland, January 13-15, 2010 Proceedings. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer; 2010. p. 35–35.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for GigaScience.

Blog post
1. Andrew E. Windowless Planes Offer Passengers Spectacular Panoramic Views [Internet]. IFLScience. IFLScience; 2014 [cited 2018 Oct 30]. Available from:


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
1. Government Accountability Office. IRS Website: Long-Term Strategy Needed to Improve Interactive Services. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office; 2013 Apr. Report No.: GAO-13-435.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
1. Kelly EJ. What experiences create and nurture a love of science? [Doctoral dissertation]. [Long Beach, CA]: California State University, Long Beach; 2016.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
1. Walsh MW. How to File a Claim For Flood Damage. New York Times. 2017 Aug 28;A10.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleGigaScience
ISSN (online)2047-217X

Other styles