How to format your references using the Emergency Medicine Journal citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Emergency Medicine Journal. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
1
Holness M. Geochemistry. How melted rock migrates. Science 2006;314:934–5.
A journal article with 2 authors
1
Li JJ, Biggin MD. Gene expression. Statistics requantitates the central dogma. Science 2015;347:1066–7.
A journal article with 3 authors
1
Giovannetti V, Lloyd S, Maccone L. Quantum-enhanced measurements: beating the standard quantum limit. Science 2004;306:1330–6.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
1
Hsu T-C, Liu K-K, Chang H-C, et al. Labeling of neuronal differentiation and neuron cells with biocompatible fluorescent nanodiamonds. Sci Rep 2014;4:5004.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
1
Peters M, Glasser D, Hildebrandt D, et al. Membrane Process Design Using Residue Curve Maps. Hoboken, NJ: : John Wiley & Sons, Inc. 2011.
An edited book
1
Liang X. Security and Privacy in Mobile Social Networks. New York, NY: : Springer 2013.
A chapter in an edited book
1
Usher R, Edwards R. The Language Games of Lifelong Learning. In: Edwards R, ed. Lifelong Learning – Signs, Discourses, Practices. Dordrecht: : Springer Netherlands 2007. 69–88.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Emergency Medicine Journal.

Blog post
1
Andrews R. Study Concludes That There Are Over One TRILLION Species On Earth. IFLScience. 2016.https://www.iflscience.com/plants-and-animals/there-are-over-one-trillion-species-earth-and-most-them-are-invisible/ (accessed 30 Oct 2018).

Reports

This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
1
Government Accountability Office. Indian Affairs: Preliminary Results Show Continued Challenges to the Oversight and Support of Education Facilities. Washington, DC: : U.S. Government Printing Office 2015.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
1
Alnuaimi AN. The Outside-In Method for Sustainable Design Within the Built Environment Spatial Layers. 2017.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
1
Oestreich JR. Singing ‘Happy 450th Birthday’ to Monteverdi. New York Times. 2017;:C6.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleEmergency Medicine Journal
AbbreviationEmerg. Med. J.
ISSN (print)1472-0205
ISSN (online)1472-0213
ScopeGeneral Medicine
Critical Care and Intensive Care Medicine
Emergency Medicine

Other styles