How to format your references using the Emergency Medicine Journal citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Emergency Medicine Journal. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
1
Primack J. Astronomy. Hidden growth of supermassive black holes in galaxy mergers. Science 2010;328:576–8.
A journal article with 2 authors
1
Guttman M, Rinn JL. Modular regulatory principles of large non-coding RNAs. Nature 2012;482:339–46.
A journal article with 3 authors
1
Ladet S, David L, Domard A. Multi-membrane hydrogels. Nature 2008;452:76–9.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
1
Cho H, Mu J, Kim JK, et al. Insulin resistance and a diabetes mellitus-like syndrome in mice lacking the protein kinase Akt2 (PKB beta). Science 2001;292:1728–31.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
1
Hübschmann H-J. Handbook of GC-MS. Weinheim, Germany: : Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA 2015.
An edited book
1
Smagorinsky P, editor. Creativity and Community among Autism-Spectrum Youth: Creating Positive Social Updrafts through Play and Performance. New York, NY: : Palgrave Macmillan US 2016.
A chapter in an edited book
1
Liu W, Winfield AFT. Distributed Autonomous Morphogenesis in a Self-Assembling Robotic System. In: Doursat R, Sayama H, Michel O, eds. Morphogenetic Engineering: Toward Programmable Complex Systems. Berlin, Heidelberg: : Springer 2012. 89–113.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Emergency Medicine Journal.

Blog post
1
Carpineti A. New Hypothesis Shows How Supermassive Black Holes Formed. IFLScience. 2017.

Reports

This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
1
Government Accountability Office. Federal Chief Information Officer: Leadership Needed to Confront Serious Challenges and Emerging Issues. Washington, DC: : U.S. Government Printing Office 2000.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
1
Peto J. A defense of Donald Davidson’s dissolution to the problem of global skepticism. 2009.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
1
Whiteside K. Trying to Find a Sneaker Named For a W.N.B.A. Star? Keep Looking. New York Times. 2017;:B7.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleEmergency Medicine Journal
AbbreviationEmerg. Med. J.
ISSN (print)1472-0205
ISSN (online)1472-0213
ScopeGeneral Medicine
Critical Care and Intensive Care Medicine
Emergency Medicine

Other styles