How to format your references using the The Saudi Journal for Dental Research citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for The Saudi Journal for Dental Research (SJDR). For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Bunk Steve. Tearing down the barriers. Nature 2002;416(6880):4–7.
A journal article with 2 authors
Zwiers F. W., Weaver A. J. CLIMATE CHANGE: The Causes of 20th Century Warming. Science 2000;290(5499):2081–3.
A journal article with 3 authors
Ishikawa Hiroki, Ma Zhe, Barber Glen N. STING regulates intracellular DNA-mediated, type I interferon-dependent innate immunity. Nature 2009;461(7265):788–92.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
Mauk B. H., Clarke J. T., Grodent D., Waite J. H. Jr, Paranicas C. P., Williams D. J. Transient aurora on Jupiter from injections of magnetospheric electrons. Nature 2002;415(6875):1003–5.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Southard Thomas E., Marshall Steven D., Bonner Laura L. Orthodontics in the Vertical Dimension. Hoboken, NJ; John Wiley & Sons, Inc: 2015.
An edited book
Deer Timothy R., Pope Jason E., editors. Atlas of Implantable Therapies for Pain Management. 2nd ed. 2016. New York, NY; Springer: 2016.
A chapter in an edited book
Hilty Lorenz M. Ethical Issues in Ubiquitous Computing—Three Technology Assessment Studies Revisited. In: Kinder-Kurlanda Katharina, Ehrwein Nihan Céline, editors. Ubiquitous Computing in the Workplace: What Ethical Issues? An Interdisciplinary Perspective. Cham; Springer International Publishing: 2015. p. 45–60.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for The Saudi Journal for Dental Research.

Blog post
Andrew Elise. The Theory Of Parallel Universes Is Not Just Maths – It Is Science That Can Be Tested. IFLScience. Available at Accessed October 30, 2018, 2015.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. University Research: Policies for the Reimbursement of Indirect Costs Need to Be Updated. Washington, DC; U.S. Government Printing Office: 2010.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Hood Edwin P. Male teacher perspective on the recruitment of male elementary teachers: A phenomenological study. Doctoral dissertation, University of Phoenix, Phoenix, AZ, 2015.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Chira Susan, Alcindor Yamiche. Defiant Yet Jubilant Voices Flood U.S. Cities. New York Times 2017:A1.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in superscript:

This sentence cites one reference 1.
This sentence cites two references 1,2.
This sentence cites four references 1–4.

About the journal

Full journal titleThe Saudi Journal for Dental Research
AbbreviationSaudi J. Dent. Res.
ISSN (print)2352-0035
ScopeGeneral Dentistry

Other styles