How to format your references using the The Pan African Medical Journal citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for The Pan African Medical Journal (PAMJ). For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
1.
Deweerdt S. Aetiology: Crucial clues. Nature. 2014;513(7517):S12-3.
A journal article with 2 authors
1.
Felzer KR, Brodsky EE. Decay of aftershock density with distance indicates triggering by dynamic stress. Nature. 2006;441(7094):735–738.
A journal article with 3 authors
1.
Park S-J, Taton TA, Mirkin CA. Array-based electrical detection of DNA with nanoparticle probes. Science. 2002;295(5559):1503–1506.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
1.
Ramachandran N, Hainsworth E, Bhullar B, Eisenstein S, Rosen B, Lau AY, et al. Self-assembling protein microarrays. Science. 2004;305(5680):86–90.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
1.
Sahinoglu M. Cyber-Risk Informatics. 2016. Hoboken, NJ. John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
An edited book
1.
Yu J, Greco S, Lingras P, Wang G, Skowron A (eds.). Rough Set and Knowledge Technology: 5th International Conference, RSKT 2010, Beijing, China, October 15-17, 2010. Proceedings. 2010. Berlin, Heidelberg. Springer.
A chapter in an edited book
1.
Warrier SB, Kharkar PS. Inverse Virtual Screening in Drug Repositioning: Detailed Investigation and Case Studies. In: Ramasami P, Gupta Bhowon M, Jhaumeer Laulloo S, Li Kam Wah H, editors. Crystallizing Ideas – The Role of Chemistry. 2016. Cham. Springer International Publishing: 71–83.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for The Pan African Medical Journal.

Blog post
1.
Hale T. ‘Biohackers’ Insert LEDs Into Their Hands. IFLScience. 2015. https://www.iflscience.com/technology/biohackers-insert-glowing-leds-their-hands/. Accessed 30 October 2018.

Reports

This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
1.
Government Accountability Office. Selected Literature on Cost Accounting and Cost Control for Automatic Data Processing. 1976. Washington, DC. U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
1.
Boudreau PD. Orthogonality in Natural Products Workflows. 2015.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
1.
Wines M. In Search of the Right Type of Juror, When a Police Officer Is on Trial. New York Times. 2017;A16.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleThe Pan African Medical Journal
AbbreviationPan Afr. Med. J.
ISSN (online)1937-8688
ScopeGeneral Medicine

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