How to format your references using the The Pan African Medical Journal citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for The Pan African Medical Journal (PAMJ). For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Premack D. Psychology. Is language the key to human intelligence? Science. 2004;303(5656):318–320.
A journal article with 2 authors
Longo VD, Finch CE. Evolutionary medicine: from dwarf model systems to healthy centenarians? Science. 2003;299(5611):1342–1346.
A journal article with 3 authors
Antonioni A, Sanchez A, Tomassini M. Global information and mobility support coordination among humans. Sci Rep. 2014;4:6458.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
Nishiyama M, Ishikawa T, Rechsteiner H, Glockshuber R. Reconstitution of pilus assembly reveals a bacterial outer membrane catalyst. Science. 2008;320(5874):376–379.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Miller MB. Mathematics and Statistics for Financial Risk Management. 2013. Hoboken, NJ. John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
An edited book
Gaimster D, Majewski T (eds.). International Handbook of Historical Archaeology. 2009. New York, NY. Springer.
A chapter in an edited book
Tassios TP. Seismic Protection of Monuments. In: Tankut AT, editor. Earthquakes and Tsunamis: Civil Engineering Disaster Mitigation Activities Implementing Millennium Development Goals. 2009. Dordrecht. Springer Netherlands: 53–65.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for The Pan African Medical Journal.

Blog post
Carpineti A. First Results From The Chinese UV Telescope On The Moon. IFLScience. 2015. Accessed 30 October 2018.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. Reserve Training: An Alternative to the Active Army Education Program for National Guard Technicians. 1988. Washington, DC. U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Jones C. Evolutionary changes in development associated with a transition in larval nutritional mode in spiralians. 2015.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Roach M. The Marvels in Your Mouth. New York Times. 2013;D1.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleThe Pan African Medical Journal
AbbreviationPan Afr. Med. J.
ISSN (online)1937-8688
ScopeGeneral Medicine

Other styles