How to format your references using the The Pan African Medical Journal citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for The Pan African Medical Journal (PAMJ). For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Devlin K. Portraits of science. Kurt Gödel--separating truth from proof in mathematics. Science. 2002;298(5600):1899–1900.
A journal article with 2 authors
Grubb MS, Burrone J. Activity-dependent relocation of the axon initial segment fine-tunes neuronal excitability. Nature. 2010;465(7301):1070–1074.
A journal article with 3 authors
Shin S-B, Golovkin M, Reddy ASN. A pollen-specific calmodulin-binding protein, NPG1, interacts with putative pectate lyases. Sci Rep. 2014;4:5263.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
Frank MR, Mitchell L, Dodds PS, Danforth CM. Happiness and the patterns of life: a study of geolocated tweets. Sci Rep. 2013;3:2625.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Brook CGD, Dattani MT. Handbook of Clinical Pediatric Endocrinology. 2012. Oxford, UK. Wiley-Blackwell.
An edited book
Jiang Q. Thermodynamics of Materials. 2011. Berlin, Heidelberg. Springer.
A chapter in an edited book
Donald BR, Levey CG, Paprotny I, Rus D. Simultaneous Control of Multiple MEMS Microrobots. In: Chirikjian GS, Choset H, Morales M, Murphey T, editors. Algorithmic Foundation of Robotics VIII: Selected Contributions of the Eight International Workshop on the Algorithmic Foundations of Robotics. 2009. Berlin, Heidelberg. Springer: 69–84.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for The Pan African Medical Journal.

Blog post
Andrews R. North American Trees Won’t Save Us From Dangerous Climate Change. IFLScience. 2016. Accessed 30 October 2018.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. Telecommunications: 1991 Survey of Cable Television Rates and Services. 1991. Washington, DC. U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Lee CM. Principals’ Understanding of Teacher Evaluations Connected to the Colorado Student Assessment Program. 2014.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Yablonsky L. Sound Garden. New York Times. 2012;M278.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleThe Pan African Medical Journal
AbbreviationPan Afr. Med. J.
ISSN (online)1937-8688
ScopeGeneral Medicine

Other styles