How to format your references using the Cytokine citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Cytokine. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
R. Motani, Scaling effects in caudal fin propulsion and the speed of ichthyosaurs, Nature. 415 (2002) 309–312.
A journal article with 2 authors
T. Bever, M. Montalbetti, Linguistics. Noam’s Ark, Science. 298 (2002) 1565–1566.
A journal article with 3 authors
B. Scaillet, M. Pichavant, R. Cioni, Upward migration of Vesuvius magma chamber over the past 20,000 years, Nature. 455 (2008) 216–219.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
X. Wang, S. Arai, X. Song, D. Reichart, K. Du, G. Pascual, P. Tempst, M.G. Rosenfeld, C.K. Glass, R. Kurokawa, Induced ncRNAs allosterically modify RNA-binding proteins in cis to inhibit transcription, Nature. 454 (2008) 126–130.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
D.E. Mead, Becoming a Marriage and Family Therapist, Wiley-Blackwell, Oxford, UK, 2013.
An edited book
L. George, T. Vardanega, eds., Reliable Software Technologies – Ada-Europe 2014: 19th Ada-Europe International Conference on Reliable Software Technologies, Paris, France, June 23-27, 2014. Proceedings, Springer International Publishing, Cham, 2014.
A chapter in an edited book
K. Yatake, T. Aoki, Automatic Generation of Model Checking Scripts Based on Environment Modeling, in: J. van de Pol, M. Weber (Eds.), Model Checking Software: 17th International SPIN Workshop, Enschede, The Netherlands, September 27-29, 2010. Proceedings, Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg, 2010: pp. 58–75.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Cytokine.

Blog post
E. Andrew, Teenage Girl Had To Stay Awake For Four Days After Parasite Started Eating Her Eyeball, IFLScience. (2015). (accessed October 30, 2018).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office, Traffic Safety: Alcohol Ignition Interlocks Are Effective While Installed; Less Is Known about How to Increase Installation Rates, U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC, 2014.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
A.C. Sonn, Institutions’ needs and donors’ dreams: A case study of successful student affairs fundraising collaboration at three private research universities, Doctoral dissertation, George Washington University, 2009.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
H. Fountain, J. Schwartz, Science and Medicine; Researchers Bristle at Extent of Cuts, New York Times. (2017) A18.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleCytokine
ISSN (print)1043-4666
Molecular Biology
Immunology and Allergy

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