How to format your references using the The Oncologist citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for The Oncologist. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Yewdell JW. Immunology. Hide and seek in the peptidome. Science 2003;301:1334–1335.
A journal article with 2 authors
Yu J, Broecker WS. Comment on “Deep-sea temperature and ice volume changes across the Pliocene-Pleistocene climate transitions.” Science 2010;328:1480; author reply 1480.
A journal article with 3 authors
Standen EM, Du TY, Larsson HCE. Developmental plasticity and the origin of tetrapods. Nature 2014;513:54–58.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Berry JF, Bill E, Bothe E et al. An octahedral coordination complex of iron(VI). Science 2006;312:1937–1941.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Davidson PW, Prasher VP, Janicki MP. Mental Health, Intellectual Disabilities, and the Aging Process. Oxford, UK: Blackwell Publishing Ltd, 2008.
An edited book
Chung P, Soltoggio A, Dawson CW et al., eds. Proceedings of the 10th International Symposium on Computer Science in Sports (ISCSS), 1st ed. 2016. Cham: Springer International Publishing, 2016: 1-XV, 268 p. 111 illus., 61 illus. in color.
A chapter in an edited book
Siebert C, Rödiger T, Schulz S et al. New Tools for Coherent Information Base for IWRM in Arid Regions: The Upper Mega Aquifer System on the Arabian Peninsula. In: Borchardt D, Bogardi JJ, Ibisch RB, eds. Integrated Water Resources Management: Concept, Research and Implementation. Cham: Springer International Publishing, 2016: 85–106.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for The Oncologist.

Blog post
Andrew E. A Guide To Using Drones To Study Wildlife: First, Do No Harm. IFLScience. 2016.Available at Accessed October 30, 2018.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. ADP Standards: Army Cancels Restrictive 3-Tier Architecture Standards. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office, 1988.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Garatli AA. What are the necessary skills for leading an online business in Saudi Arabia? 2014.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Cooper M. Watching Neo-Nazis in Virginia, From Germany. New York Times. 2017;:C1.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in superscript:

This sentence cites one reference 1.
This sentence cites two references 1,2.
This sentence cites four references 1–4.

About the journal

Full journal titleThe Oncologist
ISSN (print)1083-7159
ISSN (online)1549-490X
ScopeCancer Research

Other styles