How to format your references using the The Oncologist citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for The Oncologist. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
1
Kaelin WG Jr. Molecular biology. Use and abuse of RNAi to study mammalian gene function. Science 2012;337:421–422.
A journal article with 2 authors
1
Nedeva M, Stampfer M. Science policy. From “science in Europe” to “European science.” Science 2012;336:982–983.
A journal article with 3 authors
1
Prospero JM, Bullard JE, Hodgkins R. High-latitude dust over the North Atlantic: inputs from Icelandic proglacial dust storms. Science 2012;335:1078–1082.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
1
Zhang Z, Chen J-J, Lyu X-J, et al. Complete mineralization of perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA) by γ-irradiation in aqueous solution. Sci Rep 2014;4:7418.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
1
Gaffney S, Francis C. Honesty Sells. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc., 2009.
An edited book
1
Jajoda S, Mazumdar C, eds. Information Systems Security: 11th International Conference, ICISS 2015, Kolkata, India, December 16-20, 2015. Proceedings. Cham: Springer International Publishing, 2015: 1-XVI, 584 p. 156 illus. in color.
A chapter in an edited book
1
Niwa M, Katada N, Okumura K. DFT Calculation of the Solid Acidity. In: Katada N, Okumura K, eds. Characterization and Design of Zeolite Catalysts: Solid Acidity, Shape Selectivity and Loading Properties. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer, 2010: 61–78.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for The Oncologist.

Blog post
1
Andrew E. Ethiopia Now Has A Space Program. IFLScience. 2015.Available at https://www.iflscience.com/space/ethiopia-now-has-space-program/. Accessed October 30, 2018.

Reports

This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
1
Government Accountability Office. Federal Aviation Administration: Challenges for Transforming Into a High-Performing Organization. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office, 2004.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
1
Simmons C. Correlates and predictors of cognitive complexity among counseling and social work students in graduate training programs. 2008.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
1
Murphy MJO. 139 Years Ago: American Museum of Natural History Opens Its Permanent Home. New York Times. 2016;:C32.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in superscript:

This sentence cites one reference 1.
This sentence cites two references 1,2.
This sentence cites four references 1–4.

About the journal

Full journal titleThe Oncologist
AbbreviationOncologist
ISSN (print)1083-7159
ISSN (online)1549-490X
ScopeCancer Research
Oncology

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