How to format your references using the The Oncologist citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for The Oncologist. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
1
Neuzil CE. Osmotic generation of “anomalous” fluid pressures in geological environments. Nature 2000;403:182–184.
A journal article with 2 authors
1
Rothschild LJ, Mancinelli RL. Life in extreme environments. Nature 2001;409:1092–1101.
A journal article with 3 authors
1
Padhi AK, Jayaram B, Gomes J. Prediction of functional loss of human angiogenin mutants associated with ALS by molecular dynamics simulations. Sci Rep 2013;3:1225.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
1
Patterson N, Richter DJ, Gnerre S et al. Genetic evidence for complex speciation of humans and chimpanzees. Nature 2006;441:1103–1108.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
1
Kääriäinen T, Cameron D, Kääriäinen M-L et al. Atomic Layer Deposition. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc., 2013.
An edited book
1
Moens G. Commercial Law of the European Union. Dordrecht: Springer Netherlands, 2010: 1-CXII, 486 p.
A chapter in an edited book
1
Ganapol BD, Furfaro R. The Art of Analytical Benchmarking. In: Graziani F, ed. Computational Methods in Transport: Verification and Validation. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer, 2008: 105–134.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for The Oncologist.

Blog post
1
Davis J. Widely Available Hormone Drug Cuts Breast Cancer Recurrence By A Third If Taken For Ten Years. IFLScience. 2016.Available at https://www.iflscience.com/health-and-medicine/widely-available-hormone-drug-cuts-breast-cancer-recurrence-by-a-third-if-taken-for-ten-years/. Accessed October 30, 2018.

Reports

This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
1
Government Accountability Office. Airport and Airway Trust Fund: Preliminary Observations on Past, Present, and Future. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office, 2005.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
1
Ford VF. An Exploratory Investigation of the Relationship between Turnover Intentions, Work Exhaustion and Disengagement among IT Professionals in a Single Institution of Higher Education in a Major Metropolitan Area. 2012.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
1
Steel E. Murdoch Son’s Rebuke of Trump May Signal a Shift. New York Times. 2017;:A12.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in superscript:

This sentence cites one reference 1.
This sentence cites two references 1,2.
This sentence cites four references 1–4.

About the journal

Full journal titleThe Oncologist
AbbreviationOncologist
ISSN (print)1083-7159
ISSN (online)1549-490X
ScopeCancer Research
Oncology

Other styles