How to format your references using the Mechanical Sciences citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Mechanical Sciences. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Wickelgren, I.: Neuroscience. Monkey see, monkey think about doing, Science, 305, 162–163, 2004.
A journal article with 2 authors
Wang, F. and Lee, D.-H.: The electron-pairing mechanism of iron-based superconductors, Science, 332, 200–204, 2011.
A journal article with 3 authors
Rupar, P. A., Staroverov, V. N., and Baines, K. M.: A cryptand-encapsulated germanium(II) dication, Science, 322, 1360–1363, 2008.
A journal article with 100 or more authors
Kapanidis, A. N., Margeat, E., Ho, S. O., Kortkhonjia, E., Weiss, S., and Ebright, R. H.: Initial transcription by RNA polymerase proceeds through a DNA-scrunching mechanism, Science, 314, 1144–1147, 2006.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Thompson, D., Hogan, J. D., and Clark, P. M.: Developmental Psychology in Historical Perspective, Wiley-Blackwell, Oxford, UK, 2012.
An edited book
Aspin, D. N. and Chapman, J. D. (Eds.): Values Education and Lifelong Learning: Principles, Policies, Programmes, Springer Netherlands, Dordrecht, XVI, 448 p pp., 2007.
A chapter in an edited book
Goddard, J.: Flea-Borne Diseases, in: Infectious Diseases and Arthropods, edited by: Goddard, J., Humana Press, Totowa, NJ, 131–142, 2008.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Mechanical Sciences.

Blog post
Scientist Spotlight: In Memoriam 2013:


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office: Federal Policy, Plans, and Organization for Science and Technology, U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC, 1974.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Stanton, B.: On location: Race and family in the poetry of Sonia Sanchez, June Jordan, and Cathy Song, Doctoral dissertation, Indiana University, Bloomington, IN, 2009.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Conte, L.: Scouting Report, New York Times, 14th April, E6, 2011.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Wickelgren, 2004).
This sentence cites two references (Wickelgren, 2004; Wang and Lee, 2011).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Wang and Lee, 2011)
  • Three or more authors: (Kapanidis et al., 2006)

About the journal

Full journal titleMechanical Sciences
AbbreviationMech. Sci.
ISSN (print)2191-9151
ISSN (online)2191-916X

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