How to format your references using the Mechanical Sciences citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Mechanical Sciences. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Wood, B.: Phillip Vallentine Tobias (1925-2012), Nature, 487(7405), 40, 2012.
A journal article with 2 authors
Rushton, M. J. D. and Chroneos, A.: Impact of uniaxial strain and doping on oxygen diffusion in CeO2, Sci. Rep., 4, 6068, 2014.
A journal article with 3 authors
Bonifacio, P., Limongi, M. and Chieffi, A.: Astrophysics: How did the metals in a giant star originate?, Nature, 422(6934), 834, 2003.
A journal article with 100 or more authors
van der Wal, C. H., Eisaman, M. D., André, A., Walsworth, R. L., Phillips, D. F., Zibrov, A. S. and Lukin, M. D.: Atomic memory for correlated photon states, Science, 301(5630), 196–200, 2003.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Thompson, G. R.: Reading the American Novel 1865-1914, John Wiley & Sons, Ltd, Chichester, UK., 2011.
An edited book
Kosmidou, K., Doumpos, M. and Zopounidis, C., Eds.: Country Risk Evaluation, Springer US, Boston, MA., 2008.
A chapter in an edited book
Hübner, L.: A Service Hardware Application Case Fiducia, in S-BPM in the Wild: Practical Value Creation, edited by A. Fleischmann, W. Schmidt, and C. Stary, pp. 75–95, Springer International Publishing, Cham., 2015.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Mechanical Sciences.

Blog post
Andrew, E.: Hubble Offered A Rare, Ring-Side Seat At The Death Of A Star, IFLScience [online] Available from: (Accessed 30 October 2018), 2015.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office: Direct Student Loans Could Save Money and Simplify Program Administration, U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC., 1991.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Rabalais, M. E.: STEAM: A National Study of the Integration of the Arts Into STEM Instruction and its Impact on Student Achievement, Doctoral dissertation, University of Louisiana, Lafayette, LA., 2014.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Rosenberg, E.: Doctor Is Charged in Death After an Abortion, New York Times, 12th October, A21, 2016.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Wood, 2012).
This sentence cites two references (Rushton and Chroneos, 2014; Wood, 2012).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Rushton and Chroneos, 2014)
  • Three or more authors: (van der Wal et al., 2003)

About the journal

Full journal titleMechanical Sciences
AbbreviationMech. Sci.
ISSN (print)2191-9151
ISSN (online)2191-916X

Other styles