How to format your references using the Mechanical Sciences citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Mechanical Sciences. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Moro-Martín, A.: Spanish changes are scientific suicide, Nature, 482, 277, 2012.
A journal article with 2 authors
Popp, M. W. and Maquat, L. E.: RNA. A TRICK’n way to see the pioneer round of translation, Science, 347, 1316–1317, 2015.
A journal article with 3 authors
Asaadi, N., Ribe, N. M., and Sobouti, F.: Inferring nonlinear mantle rheology from the shape of the Hawaiian swell, Nature, 473, 501–504, 2011.
A journal article with 100 or more authors
Covert, M. W., Knight, E. M., Reed, J. L., Herrgard, M. J., and Palsson, B. O.: Integrating high-throughput and computational data elucidates bacterial networks, Nature, 429, 92–96, 2004.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Köhler, M.: Nanotechnologie, Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim, FRG, 2005.
An edited book
Fantus, I. G. (Ed.): Insulin Resistance and Cancer: Epidemiology, Cellular and Molecular Mechanisms and Clinical Implications, Springer, New York, NY, XII, 300 p pp., 2011.
A chapter in an edited book
Rodrigues, S.: The European Commission’s Reform Strategy, in: Financing Services of General Economic Interest: Reform and Modernization, edited by: Szyszczak, E. and Gronden, J. W. van de, T. M. C. Asser Press, The Hague, The Netherlands, 87–98, 2013.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Mechanical Sciences.

Blog post
Artificial Recreation Of Happy Memories May Become The Next Big Weapon Against Depression:


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office: Surface Infrastructure: High-Speed Rail Projects in the United States, U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC, 1999.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Ramirez, B. N.: Middle School English Language Learner Electronic Media Usage and Its Relationship to Reading, Doctoral dissertation, University of Phoenix, Phoenix, AZ, 2012.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Billard, M.: A New Bag, A New Space, New York Times, 7th October, E9, 2010.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Moro-Martín, 2012).
This sentence cites two references (Moro-Martín, 2012; Popp and Maquat, 2015).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Popp and Maquat, 2015)
  • Three or more authors: (Covert et al., 2004)

About the journal

Full journal titleMechanical Sciences
AbbreviationMech. Sci.
ISSN (print)2191-9151
ISSN (online)2191-916X

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