How to format your references using the Mechanical Sciences citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Mechanical Sciences. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Norman, M.: Physics. Have cuprates earned their stripes?, Science, 303(5666), 1985–1986, 2004.
A journal article with 2 authors
Rogers, G. and Dragert, H.: Episodic tremor and slip on the Cascadia subduction zone: the chatter of silent slip, Science, 300(5627), 1942–1943, 2003.
A journal article with 3 authors
Phillips, B. L., Casey, W. H. and Karlsson, M.: Bonding and reactivity at oxide mineral surfaces from model aqueous complexes, Nature, 404(6776), 379–382, 2000.
A journal article with 100 or more authors
Carter, S. G., Birkedal, V., Wang, C. S., Coldren, L. A., Maslov, A. V., Citrin, D. S. and Sherwin, M. S.: Quantum coherence in an optical modulator, Science, 310(5748), 651–653, 2005.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Svensson, H.: Schrägkabelbrücken, Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim, Germany., 2011.
An edited book
Isokoski, P. and Springare, J., Eds.: Haptics: Perception, Devices, Mobility, and Communication: International Conference, EuroHaptics 2012, Tampere, Finland, June 13-15, 2012. Proceedings, Part I, Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg., 2012.
A chapter in an edited book
Slaghuis, J., Joseph, B. and Goebel, W.: Metabolism and Physiology of Listeria monocytogenes, in Listeria monocytogenes: Pathogenesis and Host Response, edited by H. Goldfine and H. Shen, pp. 63–80, Springer US, Boston, MA., 2007.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Mechanical Sciences.

Blog post
Davis, J.: Live Dolphins FedEx’d From Hawaii To Arizona For New Tourist Attraction, IFLScience [online] Available from: (Accessed 30 October 2018), 2016.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office: Status, Progress, and Problems in Federal Agency Accounting 1969 Annual Report, U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC., 1970.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Kluck, M. C.: You are What You Read: Participation and Emancipation Problematized in Habacuc’s “Exposición #1,” Doctoral dissertation, California State University, Long Beach, Long Beach, CA., 2017.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Kelly, M.: THE 1992 CAMPAIGN: A Photo Opportunity; Serendipity or Not, Truck Full of Spuds Becomes a Star, New York Times, 23rd July, A18, 1992.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Norman, 2004).
This sentence cites two references (Norman, 2004; Rogers and Dragert, 2003).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Rogers and Dragert, 2003)
  • Three or more authors: (Carter et al., 2005)

About the journal

Full journal titleMechanical Sciences
AbbreviationMech. Sci.
ISSN (print)2191-9151
ISSN (online)2191-916X

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