How to format your references using the Mechanical Sciences citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Mechanical Sciences. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Kenyon, G.: Major UK cancer research charities to consider merger, Nature, 409, 4, 2001.
A journal article with 2 authors
Yan, Y. and Pennycook, S. J.: Atomic structure of the quasicrystal Al72Ni20Co8, Nature, 403, 266–267, 2000.
A journal article with 3 authors
Arita, I., Nakane, M., and Fenner, F.: Public health. Is polio eradication realistic?, Science, 312, 852–854, 2006.
A journal article with 100 or more authors
Kim, J., Shin, J.-Y., Kim, J.-I., Seo, J.-S., Webster, M. J., Lee, D., and Kim, S.: Somatic deletions implicated in functional diversity of brain cells of individuals with schizophrenia and unaffected controls, Sci. Rep., 4, 3807, 2014.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Karr, R.: Lead, Sell, or Get Out of the Way, John Wiley & Sons, Inc., Hoboken, NJ, 2009.
An edited book
Antoniac, I. V. (Ed.): Handbook of Bioceramics and Biocomposites, Springer International Publishing, Cham, 367 illus., 214 illus. in color. eReference pp., 2016.
A chapter in an edited book
Veselá, P. and Lammerer, B.: The Pfitsch-Mörchner Basin, an example of the post-Variscan sedimentary evolution in the Tauern Window (Eastern Alps), in: Orogenic Processes in the Alpine Collision Zone, edited by: Froitzheim, N. and Schmid, S. M., Birkhäuser, Basel, S73–S88, 2009.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Mechanical Sciences.

Blog post
Bigger Wasn’t Better For Early Humans:, last access: 30 October 2018.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office: Intelligence Programs: New RC-135 Aircraft Engines Can Reduce Cost and Improve Performance, U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC, 1992.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Nagarajah, B. A.: The influence of professional training and personal factors on technostress: A correlational study, Doctoral dissertation, Capella University, Minneapolis, MN, 2017.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Downs, J. S., Loewenstein, G., and Wisdom, J.: Eating by the Numbers, New York Times, 13th November, A31, 2009.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Kenyon, 2001).
This sentence cites two references (Kenyon, 2001; Yan and Pennycook, 2000).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Yan and Pennycook, 2000)
  • Three or more authors: (Kim et al., 2014)

About the journal

Full journal titleMechanical Sciences
AbbreviationMech. Sci.
ISSN (print)2191-9151
ISSN (online)2191-916X

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