How to format your references using the Biophysical Economics and Resource Quality citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Biophysical Economics and Resource Quality. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Hunter-Schaedle K (2015) When science fails a scientist. Science 349:1134
A journal article with 2 authors
Gault F, Huttner S (2008) A cat’s cradle for policy. Nature 455:462–463
A journal article with 3 authors
Beldade P, Koops K, Brakefield PM (2002) Developmental constraints versus flexibility in morphological evolution. Nature 416:844–847
A journal article with 5 or more authors
Luo W, Wang X, Meyers C, et al (2013) Efficient fabrication of nanoporous si and Si/Ge enabled by a heat scavenger in magnesiothermic reactions. Sci Rep 3:2222

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Böhmer E (2015) Dentistry in Rabbits and Rodents. John Wiley & Sons, Ltd, Chichester, UK
An edited book
Buszewski B, Dziubakiewicz E, Szumski M (eds) (2013) Electromigration Techniques: Theory and Practice. Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg
A chapter in an edited book
Thorsos N, Johannessen BGG, Beck M, Nganga C (2016) Synergy, Care, and Constructive Chaos: Conceptualizing the Dynamics of an International Global Co-mentoring Network. In: Johannessen BGG (ed) Global Co-Mentoring Networks in Higher Education: Politics, Policies, and Practices. Springer International Publishing, Cham, pp 57–71

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Biophysical Economics and Resource Quality.

Blog post
Andrews R (2016) Vegetables Grown On Mars Are Safe To Eat, According To Crop Experiment. In: IFLScience. Accessed 30 Oct 2018


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office (2004) Aviation Security: Challenges in Using Biometric Technologies. U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Tseng YH-H (2008) Motivation of participation in inservice training based on problem solving: A modified Delphi study. Doctoral dissertation, University of Phoenix

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Barron J (2017) A Central Park Road, High and Unwinding, Worries a Path’s Fans. New York Times A18

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Hunter-Schaedle 2015).
This sentence cites two references (Gault and Huttner 2008; Hunter-Schaedle 2015).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Gault and Huttner 2008)
  • Three or more authors: (Luo et al. 2013)

About the journal

Full journal titleBiophysical Economics and Resource Quality
AbbreviationBiophys. Econ. Resour. Qual.
ISSN (print)2366-0112
ISSN (online)2366-0120

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