How to format your references using the Biophysical Economics and Resource Quality citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Biophysical Economics and Resource Quality. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Koriat A (2012) When are two heads better than one and why? Science 336:360–362
A journal article with 2 authors
Oliveira JG, Barabási A-L (2005) Human dynamics: Darwin and Einstein correspondence patterns. Nature 437:1251
A journal article with 3 authors
Kielpinski D, Monroe C, Wineland DJ (2002) Architecture for a large-scale ion-trap quantum computer. Nature 417:709–711
A journal article with 5 or more authors
Barnard JS, Sharp J, Tong JR, Midgley PA (2006) High-resolution three-dimensional imaging of dislocations. Science 313:319

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Voigtman E (2017) Limits of Detection in Chemical Analysis. John Wiley & Sons, Inc., Hoboken, New Jersey
An edited book
Smith SK (2013) A Practitioner’s Guide to State and Local Population Projections. Springer Netherlands, Dordrecht
A chapter in an edited book
Kitaev S, Lozin V (2015) Various Results on Word-Representable Graphs. In: Lozin V (ed) Words and Graphs. Springer International Publishing, Cham, pp 81–130

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Biophysical Economics and Resource Quality.

Blog post
Andrew D (2016) Scientists Asked 5,500 Americans To Reveal Their “Relationship Deal Breakers” — Here’s What They Learned. In: IFLScience. Accessed 30 Oct 2018


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office (2006) Telecommunications: States’ Collection and Use of Funds for Wireless Enhanced 911 Services. U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Stephens BS (2017) Understanding CXC Chemokine Receptor 4 Activation by CXC Chemokine Ligand 12. Doctoral dissertation, University of California San Diego

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Eligon J (2017) Cagey Mayweather Saves Fireworks for Last. New York Times D3

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Koriat 2012).
This sentence cites two references (Oliveira and Barabási 2005; Koriat 2012).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Oliveira and Barabási 2005)
  • Three or more authors: (Barnard et al. 2006)

About the journal

Full journal titleBiophysical Economics and Resource Quality
AbbreviationBiophys. Econ. Resour. Qual.
ISSN (print)2366-0112
ISSN (online)2366-0120

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