How to format your references using the Biophysical Economics and Resource Quality citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Biophysical Economics and Resource Quality. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Baker J (2007) Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter. Water, water, not everywhere? Introduction to special issue. Science 317:1705
A journal article with 2 authors
Krupalnik V, Hanna JH (2014) Stem cells: The quest for the perfect reprogrammed cell. Nature 511:160–162
A journal article with 3 authors
Nagashima K, Krot AN, Yurimoto H (2004) Stardust silicates from primitive meteorites. Nature 428:921–924
A journal article with 5 or more authors
Okada A, Charron F, Morin S, et al (2006) Boc is a receptor for sonic hedgehog in the guidance of commissural axons. Nature 444:369–373

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Paterson S, Tobias K (2012) Atlas of ear diseases of the dog and cat. John Wiley & Sons, Ltd,., West Sussex, UK
An edited book
Demetriou KN (ed) (2015) The European Union in Crisis: Explorations in Representation and Democratic Legitimacy. Springer International Publishing, Cham
A chapter in an edited book
Kondo K, Watanabe T (2015) Interactive Sketch Interpreter for Geometric Modeling. In: Cocchiarella L (ed) The Visual Language of Technique: Volume 2 - Heritage and Expectations in Research. Springer International Publishing, Cham, pp 29–48

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Biophysical Economics and Resource Quality.

Blog post
Andrew E (2015) Five Deadly Parasites That Have Crossed The Globe. In: IFLScience. Accessed 30 Oct 2018


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office (2005) DOD Systems Modernization: Planned Investment in the Naval Tactical Command Support System Needs to be Reassessed. U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Francom C (2012) Análisis sociolingüístico de eleccion de lengua en encuentros de servicio: Una perspectiva etnográfica y experimental. Doctoral dissertation, University of Arizona

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Kovaleski SF, Alter A (2015) Another Drama in Hometown of Harper Lee. New York Times C1

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Baker 2007).
This sentence cites two references (Baker 2007; Krupalnik and Hanna 2014).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Krupalnik and Hanna 2014)
  • Three or more authors: (Okada et al. 2006)

About the journal

Full journal titleBiophysical Economics and Resource Quality
AbbreviationBiophys. Econ. Resour. Qual.
ISSN (print)2366-0112
ISSN (online)2366-0120

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