How to format your references using the Biophysical Economics and Resource Quality citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Biophysical Economics and Resource Quality. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Faist J (2000) APPLIED PHYSICS: Smaller, Faster Midinfrared Lasers. Science 290:1713–1714
A journal article with 2 authors
Shapiro NM, Koulakov I (2015) Geophysics. Probing the underbelly of a supervolcano. Science 348:758–759
A journal article with 3 authors
Wood BJ, Walter MJ, Wade J (2006) Accretion of the Earth and segregation of its core. Nature 441:825–833
A journal article with 5 or more authors
Gompel N, Prud’homme B, Wittkopp PJ, et al (2005) Chance caught on the wing: cis-regulatory evolution and the origin of pigment patterns in Drosophila. Nature 433:481–487

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Gregory J (2014) Central Counterparties. John Wiley & Sons, Ltd, Chichester, UK
An edited book
Korelc J (2016) Automation of Finite Element Methods. Springer International Publishing, Cham
A chapter in an edited book
Zeira A (2010) Testing Practice Wisdom in Child Welfare. In: Kamerman SB, Phipps S, Ben-Arieh A (eds) From Child Welfare to Child Well-Being: An International Perspective on Knowledge in the Service of Policy Making. Springer Netherlands, Dordrecht, pp 49–63

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Biophysical Economics and Resource Quality.

Blog post
Andrew E (2014) On brown dwarfs, storms of molten iron are always forecast. In: IFLScience. Accessed 30 Oct 2018


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office (1995) Tongass Timber Reform Act: Implementation of the Act’s Contract Modification Requirements. U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Tabak S (2015) Aspiring States at the International Court of Justice. Doctoral dissertation, George Washington University

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Stewart JB (2017) Twilight of the Guru. New York Times B1

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Faist 2000).
This sentence cites two references (Faist 2000; Shapiro and Koulakov 2015).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Shapiro and Koulakov 2015)
  • Three or more authors: (Gompel et al. 2005)

About the journal

Full journal titleBiophysical Economics and Resource Quality
AbbreviationBiophys. Econ. Resour. Qual.
ISSN (print)2366-0112
ISSN (online)2366-0120

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