How to format your references using the Biophysical Economics and Resource Quality citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Biophysical Economics and Resource Quality. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Kerr RA (2000) EARTH SCIENCE: Did Volcanoes Drive Ancient Extinctions? Science 289:1130–1131
A journal article with 2 authors
Wood B, Harrison T (2011) The evolutionary context of the first hominins. Nature 470:347–352
A journal article with 3 authors
Akselrod M, Herzog MH, Öğmen H (2014) Tracing path-guided apparent motion in human primary visual cortex V1. Sci Rep 4:6063
A journal article with 5 or more authors
He L, Wu X-S, Mohan R, Wu L-G (2006) Two modes of fusion pore opening revealed by cell-attached recordings at a synapse. Nature 444:102–105

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Pevsner J (2005) Bioinformatics and Functional Genomics. John Wiley & Sons, Inc., Hoboken, NJ
An edited book
Guliš G, Mekel O, Ádám B, Cori L (eds) (2014) Assessment of Population Health Risks of Policies. Springer, New York, NY
A chapter in an edited book
Wu XB, Wu XH, Guo JH, et al (2015) Polyanion Compounds as Cathode Materials for Li-Ion Batteries. In: Zhang Z, Zhang SS (eds) Rechargeable Batteries: Materials, Technologies and New Trends. Springer International Publishing, Cham, pp 93–134

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Biophysical Economics and Resource Quality.

Blog post
Luntz S (2015) Warming Lethal For Extinct Megafauna. In: IFLScience. Accessed 30 Oct 2018


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office (1998) GSA: Causes of Delay in the Federal Communications Commission Move to the Portals II Building. U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Allen SD (2014) Putting out fires: How communication professionals understand and practice conflict resolution. Doctoral dissertation, University of Maryland, College Park

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Kelly M (1992) THE 1992 CAMPAIGN: Political Memo; A Changed Gore, With a Firmer Voice. New York Times A15

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Kerr 2000).
This sentence cites two references (Kerr 2000; Wood and Harrison 2011).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Wood and Harrison 2011)
  • Three or more authors: (He et al. 2006)

About the journal

Full journal titleBiophysical Economics and Resource Quality
AbbreviationBiophys. Econ. Resour. Qual.
ISSN (print)2366-0112
ISSN (online)2366-0120

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