How to format your references using the The Ocular Surface citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for The Ocular Surface. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
[1]
Goldston D. Sending out an SOS. Nature 2009;460:679.
A journal article with 2 authors
[1]
Kiberstis P, Roberts L. Breast cancer. A race still unfinished. Introduction. Science 2014;343:1451.
A journal article with 3 authors
[1]
Field J, Cronin A, Bridge C. Future fitness and helping in social queues. Nature 2006;441:214–7.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
[1]
Myers RA, Baum JK, Shepherd TD, Powers SP, Peterson CH. Cascading effects of the loss of apex predatory sharks from a coastal ocean. Science 2007;315:1846–50.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
[1]
Zhang W, Shmulevich I, Astola J. Microarray Quality Control. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.; 2005.
An edited book
[1]
White MA, Murray AS, editors. Evidence-Based Approaches in Positive Education: Implementing a Strategic Framework for Well-being in Schools. Dordrecht: Springer Netherlands; 2015.
A chapter in an edited book
[1]
Gorenstein MI. CRITICAL LINE OF THE DECONFINEMENT PHASE TRANSITIONS. In: Čechák T, Jenkovszky L, Karpenko I, editors. Nuclear Science and Safety in Europe, Dordrecht: Springer Netherlands; 2006, p. 49–67.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for The Ocular Surface.

Blog post
[1]
Andrew E. This Is The Submarine NASA’s Wants To Use To Explore Titan. IFLScience 2015.

Reports

This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
[1]
Government Accountability Office. Air Traffic Control: FAA Needs a More Comprehensive Approach to Address Cybersecurity As Agency Transitions to NextGen. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office; 2015.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
[1]
Munn JE. Information Technology Certification Training Implementation: Exploratory Case Study of Air Force and Civilian Leaders Experiences. Doctoral dissertation. University of Phoenix, 2017.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
[1]
Walsh MW. Puerto Rico’s Power Agency Defaults Over Debt. New York Times 2017:B2.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleThe Ocular Surface
AbbreviationOcul. Surf.
ISSN (print)1542-0124
ScopeOphthalmology

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