How to format your references using the The Ocular Surface citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for The Ocular Surface. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Macilwain C. The time is right to confront misconduct. Nature 2012;488:7.
A journal article with 2 authors
Gorlach S, Slabicki M. Scientists and societies. The Polish biotech gap. Nature 2004;427:870.
A journal article with 3 authors
Antonovics J, Hood ME, Baker CH. Molecular virology: was the 1918 flu avian in origin? Nature 2006;440:E9; discussion E9-10.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
Lin G, Baraban L, Han L, Karnaushenko D, Makarov D, Cuniberti G, et al. Magnetoresistive emulsion analyzer. Sci Rep 2013;3:2548.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Pease G. Optimize Your Greatest Asset-Your People. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc; 2015.
An edited book
Gómez L, Horno-Delgado A, Long MK, Silleras-Fernández N, editors. Teaching Gender through Latin American, Latino, and Iberian Texts and Cultures. Rotterdam: SensePublishers; 2015.
A chapter in an edited book
Tulyakov S, Farooq F, Govindaraju V. Symmetric Hash Functions for Fingerprint Minutiae. In: Singh S, Singh M, Apte C, Perner P, editors. Pattern Recognition and Image Analysis: Third International Conference on Advances in Pattern Recognition, ICAPR 2005, Bath, UK, August 22-25, 2005, Proceedings, Part II, Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer; 2005, p. 30–8.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for The Ocular Surface.

Blog post
Andrew E. Marine Plankton Found On Surface Of International Space Station. IFLScience 2014.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. TQM Implementation at NASA. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office; 1993.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
McCafferty B. Chalk Talk. Doctoral dissertation. University of Maryland, College Park, 2009.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Oestreich JR. Gods Get Ready for a New Holiday. New York Times 2017:C6.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleThe Ocular Surface
AbbreviationOcul. Surf.
ISSN (print)1542-0124

Other styles