How to format your references using the The Ocular Surface citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for The Ocular Surface. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
[1]
Murray CD. Planetary science. Ringing the changes. Science 2006;311:961–2.
A journal article with 2 authors
[1]
Fedo CM, Whitehouse MJ. Metasomatic origin of quartz-pyroxene rock, Akilia, Greenland, and implications for Earth’s earliest life. Science 2002;296:1448–52.
A journal article with 3 authors
[1]
Royo-Torres R, Cobos A, Alcalá L. A giant European dinosaur and a new sauropod clade. Science 2006;314:1925–7.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
[1]
Gleyzes S, Kuhr S, Guerlin C, Bernu J, Deléglise S, Busk Hoff U, et al. Quantum jumps of light recording the birth and death of a photon in a cavity. Nature 2007;446:297–300.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
[1]
Kassapoglou C. Design and Analysis of Composite Structures. Oxford, UK: John Wiley & Sons Ltd; 2013.
An edited book
[1]
Eisenberg RL, Margulis AR, editors. The Right Imaging Study: A Guide for Physicians. New York, NY: Springer; 2008.
A chapter in an edited book
[1]
Hue PTB, Wohlgemuth S, Echizen I, Thuy DTB, Thuc ND. Fine-Grained Access Control for Electronic Health Record Systems. In: Kim T-H, Ma J, Fang W-C, Park B, Kang B-H, Ślęzak D, editors. U- and E-Service, Science and Technology: International Conference UNESST 2010, Held as Part of the Future Generation Information Technology Conference, FGIT 2010, Jeju Island, Korea, December 13-15, 2010. Proceedings, Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer; 2010, p. 31–8.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for The Ocular Surface.

Blog post
[1]
Andrew E. Explainer: What Is A Superconductor? IFLScience 2015. https://www.iflscience.com/physics/explainer-what-superconductor/ (accessed October 30, 2018).

Reports

This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
[1]
Government Accountability Office. Highway Safety: Factors Affecting Involvement in Vehicle Crashes. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office; 1994.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
[1]
Fahmy C. Intoxicated by music: A content analysis of the prevalence of alcohol, illicit substances, and tobacco in popular music from 2000 to 2011. Doctoral dissertation. California State University, Long Beach, 2012.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
[1]
Walsh MW. No 401(k)? California Will Step In for Workers. New York Times 2016:B1.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleThe Ocular Surface
AbbreviationOcul. Surf.
ISSN (print)1542-0124
ScopeOphthalmology

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