How to format your references using the International Journal of Nursing Studies citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for International Journal of Nursing Studies. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Glasby, G.P., 2000. ECONOMIC GEOLOGY: Lessons Learned from Deep-Sea Mining. Science 289, 551–553.
A journal article with 2 authors
Stevens, M.M., George, J.H., 2005. Exploring and engineering the cell surface interface. Science 310, 1135–1138.
A journal article with 3 authors
Hanna, J.B., Schmitt, D., Griffin, T.M., 2008. The energetic cost of climbing in primates. Science 320, 898.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Fang, J., Chen, A., Peng, C., Zhao, S., Ci, L., 2001. Changes in forest biomass carbon storage in China between 1949 and 1998. Science 292, 2320–2322.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Kramer, H., 2013. Angewandte Baudynamik. Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim, Germany.
An edited book
Walochnik, J., Duchêne, M. (Eds.), 2016. Molecular Parasitology: Protozoan Parasites and their Molecules. Springer, Vienna.
A chapter in an edited book
Bloothooft, G., Schraagen, M., 2015. Learning Name Variants from Inexact High-Confidence Matches, in: Bloothooft, G., Christen, P., Mandemakers, K., Schraagen, M. (Eds.), Population Reconstruction. Springer International Publishing, Cham, pp. 61–83.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for International Journal of Nursing Studies.

Blog post
Luntz, S., 2015. Why Is Saturn So Bizarrely Hot? [WWW Document]. IFLScience. URL (accessed 10.30.18).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office, 1987. Satellite Acquisition: Global Positioning System Acquisition Changes After Challenger’s Accident (No. NSIAD-87-209BR). U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Chan, J.A., 2014. An in-home visitation program for Meals-on-Wheels recipients: A grant proposal (Doctoral dissertation). California State University, Long Beach, Long Beach, CA.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Johnson, G., 2014. The Intelligent-Life Lottery. New York Times D3.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Glasby, 2000).
This sentence cites two references (Glasby, 2000; Stevens and George, 2005).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Stevens and George, 2005)
  • Three or more authors: (Fang et al., 2001)

About the journal

Full journal titleInternational Journal of Nursing Studies
AbbreviationInt. J. Nurs. Stud.
ISSN (print)0020-7489
ScopeGeneral Nursing

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