How to format your references using the International Journal of Nursing Studies citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for International Journal of Nursing Studies. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Harwood, C., 2008. A microbiologist hopes to disrupt bacterial “decisions.” Nature 455, 5.
A journal article with 2 authors
Zhang, M., Barash, S., 2000. Neuronal switching of sensorimotor transformations for antisaccades. Nature 408, 971–975.
A journal article with 3 authors
Chave, J., Alonso, D., Etienne, R.S., 2006. Theoretical biology: comparing models of species abundance. Nature 441, E1; discussion E1-2.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Santos-Rosa, H., Schneider, R., Bannister, A.J., Sherriff, J., Bernstein, B.E., Emre, N.C.T., Schreiber, S.L., Mellor, J., Kouzarides, T., 2002. Active genes are tri-methylated at K4 of histone H3. Nature 419, 407–411.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Han, C.C., Akcasu, A.Z., 2011. Scattering and Dynamics of Polymers. John Wiley & Sons (Asia) Pte Ltd, Singapore.
An edited book
Petersen, T.J., E. Sprich, S., Wilhelm, S. (Eds.), 2016. The Massachusetts General Hospital Handbook of Cognitive Behavioral Therapy, 1st ed. 2016. ed, Current Clinical Psychiatry. Springer, New York, NY.
A chapter in an edited book
Zhang, Y.-H., Zhang, F., 2012. Research on New Algorithm of Topic-Oriented Crawler and Duplicated Web Pages Detection, in: Huang, D.-S., Ma, J., Jo, K.-H., Gromiha, M.M. (Eds.), Intelligent Computing Theories and Applications: 8th International Conference, ICIC 2012, Huangshan, China, July 25-29, 2012. Proceedings, Lecture Notes in Computer Science. Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg, pp. 35–42.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for International Journal of Nursing Studies.

Blog post
Andrew, D., 2016. 22 Ways To Cut Your Energy Bills (Before Spending On Solar Panels) [WWW Document]. IFLScience. URL (accessed 10.30.18).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office, 1989. Transportation Infrastructure: Reshaping the Federal Role Poses Significant Challenge for Policy Makers (No. RCED-90-81A). U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Topdemir, C.M., 2010. School counselor accountability practices: A national study (Doctoral dissertation). University of South Florida, Tampa, FL.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Vecsey, G., 2011. At the Stadium, a Parade of Respect. New York Times D6.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Harwood, 2008).
This sentence cites two references (Harwood, 2008; Zhang and Barash, 2000).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Zhang and Barash, 2000)
  • Three or more authors: (Santos-Rosa et al., 2002)

About the journal

Full journal titleInternational Journal of Nursing Studies
AbbreviationInt. J. Nurs. Stud.
ISSN (print)0020-7489
ScopeGeneral Nursing

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