How to format your references using the International Journal of Nursing Studies citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for International Journal of Nursing Studies. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Maddox, B., 2003. The double helix and the “wronged heroine.” Nature 421, 407–408.
A journal article with 2 authors
Liu, J., Yang, W., 2012. Water management. Water sustainability for China and beyond. Science 337, 649–650.
A journal article with 3 authors
Cowen, R.K., Paris, C.B., Srinivasan, A., 2006. Scaling of connectivity in marine populations. Science 311, 522–527.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Ganesh, L., Burstein, E., Guha-Niyogi, A., Louder, M.K., Mascola, J.R., Klomp, L.W.J., Wijmenga, C., Duckett, C.S., Nabel, G.J., 2003. The gene product Murr1 restricts HIV-1 replication in resting CD4+ lymphocytes. Nature 426, 853–857.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Veasey, D.A., McCormick, L.C., Hilyer, B.M., Oldfield, K.W., Hansen, S., Krayer, T.H., 2005. Confined Space Entry and Emergency Response. John Wiley & Sons, Inc., Hoboken, NJ.
An edited book
Sawant, N., 2013. Big Data Application Architecture Q & A: A Problem-Solution Approach. Apress, Berkeley, CA.
A chapter in an edited book
Khazai, B., Daniell, J.E., Düzgün, Ş., Kunz-Plapp, T., Wenzel, F., 2014. Framework for Systemic Socio-economic Vulnerability and Loss Assessment, in: Pitilakis, K., Franchin, P., Khazai, B., Wenzel, H. (Eds.), SYNER-G: Systemic Seismic Vulnerability and Risk Assessment of Complex Urban, Utility, Lifeline Systems and Critical Facilities: Methodology and Applications, Geotechnical, Geological and Earthquake Engineering. Springer Netherlands, Dordrecht, pp. 89–130.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for International Journal of Nursing Studies.

Blog post
Andrew, D., 2017. A Nevada Woman Died From A Bug That Resisted 26 Antibiotics — Here’s Why It’s So Hard To Develop New Ones [WWW Document]. IFLScience. URL (accessed 10.30.18).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office, 2003. Information Technology: A Framework for Assessing and Improving Enterprise Architecture Management (Version 1.1) (Superseded by GAO-10-846G) (No. GAO-03-584G). U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Hogue, M.L., 2012. A Case Study of Perspectives on Building School and Community Partnerships (Doctoral dissertation). University of South Florida, Tampa, FL.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
(nyt), S.K., 2002. World Briefing | Europe: Belarus: Journalists Sentenced. New York Times A6.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Maddox, 2003).
This sentence cites two references (Liu and Yang, 2012; Maddox, 2003).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Liu and Yang, 2012)
  • Three or more authors: (Ganesh et al., 2003)

About the journal

Full journal titleInternational Journal of Nursing Studies
AbbreviationInt. J. Nurs. Stud.
ISSN (print)0020-7489
ScopeGeneral Nursing

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