How to format your references using the International Journal of Nursing Studies citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for International Journal of Nursing Studies. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Eldakar, O.T., 2009. Journal club. An evolutionary biologist learns how to be remembered: cheat someone. Nature 460, 783.
A journal article with 2 authors
Rammig, A., Mahecha, M.D., 2015. Ecology: Ecosystem responses to climate extremes. Nature 527, 315–316.
A journal article with 3 authors
Petrides, M., Cadoret, G., Mackey, S., 2005. Orofacial somatomotor responses in the macaque monkey homologue of Broca’s area. Nature 435, 1235–1238.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Muijres, F.T., Johansson, L.C., Barfield, R., Wolf, M., Spedding, G.R., Hedenström, A., 2008. Leading-edge vortex improves lift in slow-flying bats. Science 319, 1250–1253.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Thomas, C.G., 2014. Greece. John Wiley & Sons, Ltd, Oxford.
An edited book
Nitto, E.D., Ripeanu, M. (Eds.), 2009. Service-Oriented Computing - ICSOC 2007 Workshops: ICSOC 2007, International Workshops, Vienna, Austria, September 17, 2007, Revised Selected Papers, Lecture Notes in Computer Science. Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg.
A chapter in an edited book
Ekbia, H.R., 2006. Taking Decisions into the Wild: An AI Perspective in the Design of i-DMSS, in: Forgionne, G.A., Mora T., M. (Eds.), Intelligent Decision-Making Support Systems: Foundations, Applications and Challenges, Decision Engineering. Springer, London, pp. 79–96.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for International Journal of Nursing Studies.

Blog post
Davis, J., 2016. Fungal Infections Kill More People Globally Than Malaria Or TB [WWW Document]. IFLScience. URL (accessed 10.30.18).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office, 2007. Social Security Numbers: Federal Actions Could Further Decrease Availability in Public Records, though Other Vulnerabilities Remain (No. GAO-07-752). U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Boudreau, M.-L., 2014. Chanter en français en Louisiane: Du passé vers le futur (Doctoral dissertation). University of Louisiana, Lafayette, LA.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Parker, A., Sanger, D.E., 2016. Trump Eggs on Moscow in Hack of Clinton Email. New York Times A1.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Muchhala, 2006).
This sentence cites two references (Freeman, 2000; Schmitz, 2008).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Rammig and Mahecha, 2015)
  • Three or more authors: (Arbeitman et al., 2002)

About the journal

Full journal titleInternational Journal of Nursing Studies
AbbreviationInt. J. Nurs. Stud.
ISSN (print)0020-7489
ScopeGeneral Nursing

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