How to format your references using the International Journal of Nursing Studies citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for International Journal of Nursing Studies. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Mace, R., 2008. Reproducing in cities. Science 319, 764–766.
A journal article with 2 authors
Goulder, L.H., Stavins, R.N., 2002. Discounting: an eye on the future. Nature 419, 673–674.
A journal article with 3 authors
Pettifer, R.F., Collins, S.P., Laundy, D., 2008. Quadrupole transitions revealed by Borrmann spectroscopy. Nature 454, 196–199.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Chai, J., Du, C., Wu, J.W., Kyin, S., Wang, X., Shi, Y., 2000. Structural and biochemical basis of apoptotic activation by Smac/DIABLO. Nature 406, 855–862.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Kulkarni, S., Harman, G., 2011. An Elementary Introduction to Statistical Learning Theory: Kulkarni/Statistical Learning Theory, Wiley Series in Probability and Statistics. John Wiley & Sons, Inc., Hoboken, NJ.
An edited book
Krenk, S., 2013. Statics and Mechanics of Structures. Springer Netherlands, Dordrecht.
A chapter in an edited book
Kubczak, C., Margaria, T., Steffen, B., Nagel, R., 2009. Service-oriented Mediation with jABC/jETI, in: Petrie, C., Margaria, T., Lausen, H., Zaremba, M. (Eds.), Semantic Web Services Challenge: Results from the First Year, Semantic Web And Beyond. Springer US, Boston, MA, pp. 71–99.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for International Journal of Nursing Studies.

Blog post
Taub, B., 2016. Learning Music Gives Kids Extra Brain Connections [WWW Document]. IFLScience. URL (accessed 10.30.18).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office, 2000. Aviation and the Environment: FAA’s Role in Major Airport Noise Programs (No. RCED-00-98). U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Leak, S.C., 2010. Building community capacity to meet the needs of our aging society: Interdisciplinary competency development for professionals (Doctoral dissertation). University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill, NC.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Vecsey, G., 2016. Project Turns to Architect It Knows Well. New York Times B8.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Mace, 2008).
This sentence cites two references (Goulder and Stavins, 2002; Mace, 2008).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Goulder and Stavins, 2002)
  • Three or more authors: (Chai et al., 2000)

About the journal

Full journal titleInternational Journal of Nursing Studies
AbbreviationInt. J. Nurs. Stud.
ISSN (print)0020-7489
ScopeGeneral Nursing

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