How to format your references using the Genetics citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Genetics. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Powell K., 2004 Destressing in the geekosphere. Nature 427: 268–269.
A journal article with 2 authors
Bays P. M., and M. Husain, 2009 Response to Comment on “Dynamic Shifts of Limited Working Memory Resources in Human Vision.” Science 323: 877.
A journal article with 3 authors
Fontana L., L. Partridge, and V. D. Longo, 2010 Extending healthy life span--from yeast to humans. Science 328: 321–326.
A journal article with 6 or more authors
Lam S. K., D. Chen, A. R. Mosier, and R. Roush, 2013 The potential for carbon sequestration in Australian agricultural soils is technically and economically limited. Sci. Rep. 3: 2179.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Carroll N., 2013 Minerva’s Night Out. A John Wiley & Sons, Oxford.
An edited book
Kilian J. (Ed.), 2005 Theory of Cryptography: Second Theory of Cryptography Conference, TCC 2005, Cambridge, MA, USA, February 10-12, 2005. Proceedings. Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg.
A chapter in an edited book
Hosoya Y., 2014 A Characterization of Quasi-concave Function in View of the Integrability Theory, pp. 135–140 in Advances in Mathematical Economics Volume 18, Advances in Mathematical Economics. edited by Kusuoka S., Maruyama T. Springer Japan, Tokyo.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Genetics.

Blog post
Davis J., 2015 Nearly 700 Million Cases Of Malaria Have Been Prevented Since 2000. IFLScience.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office, 2017 Radioactive Sources: Opportunities Exist for Federal Agencies to Strengthen Transportation Security. U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Le D., 2015 L.A. Children’s Music Therapy Center, LLC

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Pilon M., 2014 Another Dutch Sweep Leaves Americans Baffled. New York Times D3.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Powell 2004).
This sentence cites two references (Powell 2004; Bays and Husain 2009).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Bays and Husain 2009)
  • Three or more authors: (Lam et al. 2013)

About the journal

Full journal titleGenetics
ISSN (print)0016-6731
ISSN (online)1943-2631

Other styles