How to format your references using the Genetics citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Genetics. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Tyran J.-R., 2007 Economics. Money illusion and the market. Science 317: 1042–1043.
A journal article with 2 authors
Park H.-J., and K. Friston, 2013 Structural and functional brain networks: from connections to cognition. Science 342: 1238411.
A journal article with 3 authors
Di Toro G., S. Nielsen, and G. Pennacchioni, 2005 Earthquake rupture dynamics frozen in exhumed ancient faults. Nature 436: 1009–1012.
A journal article with 6 or more authors
Xiao Z., K. Sun, J. Subbiah, S. Ji, D. J. Jones, et al., 2014 Hydrogen bonding in bulk heterojunction solar cells: a case study. Sci. Rep. 4: 5701.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Liu H. H., 2011 Oracle Database Performance and Scalability. John Wiley & Sons, Inc., Hoboken, NJ.
An edited book
Borcsa M., and P. Rober (Eds.), 2016 Research Perspectives in Couple Therapy: Discursive Qualitative Methods. Springer International Publishing, Cham.
A chapter in an edited book
Yoda M., 2012 History of the Relationship between People and Lake Biwa, pp. 239–307 in Lake Biwa: Interactions between Nature and People, edited by Kawanabe H., Nishino M., Maehata M. Springer Netherlands, Dordrecht.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Genetics.

Blog post
Andrew E., 2015 Sustainability Science Is A New Academic Discipline. But Is It Sustainable? IFLScience.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office, 2001 JFMIP: Acquisition/Financial Systems Interface Requirements (Exposure Draft). U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Lowrance T. L., 2017 Exploring the Four Modes of Organizational Forgetting in an Organization Post Acquisition

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Loomis G., 2012 Changing the Formula at the Salzburg Festival. New York Times 0.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Tyran 2007).
This sentence cites two references (Tyran 2007; Park and Friston 2013).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Park and Friston 2013)
  • Three or more authors: (Xiao et al. 2014)

About the journal

Full journal titleGenetics
ISSN (print)0016-6731
ISSN (online)1943-2631

Other styles