How to format your references using the The Nucleus citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for The Nucleus. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
1. Check E. Pathogen-tracking questioned. Nature. 2002;420:451.
A journal article with 2 authors
1. Olson MV, Varki A. Genomics. The chimpanzee genome--a bittersweet celebration. Science. 2004;305:191–2.
A journal article with 3 authors
1. Callou C, Samzun A, Zivie A. Archaeology: a lion found in the Egyptian tomb of Maïa. Nature. 2004;427:211–2.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
1. Ji Q, Norell MA, Gao KQ, Ji SA, Ren D. The distribution of integumentary structures in a feathered dinosaur. Nature. 2001;410:1084–8.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
1. Wahbi M. Algorithms and Ordering Heuristics for Distributed Constraint Satisfaction Problems. Hoboken, NJ USA: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.; 2013.
An edited book
1. Mansuy R. Random Times and Enlargements of Filtrations in a Brownian Setting. Yor M, editor. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer; 2006.
A chapter in an edited book
1. Tari Z, Phan AKA, Jayasinghe M, Abhaya VG. Network Traffic Optimisation. In: Phan AKA, Jayasinghe M, Abhaya VG, editors. On the Performance of Web Services. Boston, MA: Springer US; 2011. p. 105–38.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for The Nucleus.

Blog post
1. Hale T. Couples Who Share Housework Equally Have More Sex, Claims Study [Internet]. IFLScience. IFLScience; 2016 [cited 2018 Oct 30]. Available from:


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
1. Government Accountability Office. Voice of America: Station Modernization Projects Need to Be Justified. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office; 1994 Jan. Report No.: NSIAD-94-69.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
1. Kramer-Duffield J. Beliefs and uses of tagging among undergraduates [Doctoral dissertation]. [Chapel Hill, NC]: University of North Carolina; 2010.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
1. Gustines GG. Drawn From History and Imagination. New York Times. 2012 Nov 23;C33.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleThe Nucleus
AbbreviationNucleus (Calcutta)
ISSN (print)0029-568X
ISSN (online)0976-7975
ScopeCell Biology
Molecular Biology
Molecular Medicine

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