How to format your references using the The Nucleus citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for The Nucleus. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
1. Branch D. Astrophysics. When a white dwarf explodes. Science. 2003;299:53–4.
A journal article with 2 authors
1. Meldrum FC, Sear RP. Materials science. Now you see them. Science. 2008;322:1802–3.
A journal article with 3 authors
1. Tsori Y, Tournilhac F, Leibler L. Demixing in simple fluids induced by electric field gradients. Nature. 2004;430:544–7.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
1. Choi E-S, Nam J-S, Jung J-Y, Cho N-P, Cho S-D. Modulation of specificity protein 1 by mithramycin A as a novel therapeutic strategy for cervical cancer. Sci Rep. 2014;4:7162.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
1. Halbich IW. Cape Fold Belt‐Agulhas Bank Transect Across Gondwana Suture, Southern Africa. Washington, D. C.: American Geophysical Union; 1993. p. 46.
An edited book
1. Bornstein BH, Miller MK, editors. Advances in Psychology and Law: Volume 2. Cham: Springer International Publishing; 2016.
A chapter in an edited book
1. Ghosh A, Pal M, Bhadra P, Sarcar P. Design of Dielectric Resonator Antenna with Different Dielectric Constants. In: Maharatna K, Dalapati GK, Banerjee PK, Mallick AK, Mukherjee M, editors. Computational Advancement in Communication Circuits and Systems: Proceedings of ICCACCS 2014. New Delhi: Springer India; 2015. p. 39–45.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for The Nucleus.

Blog post
1. Andrew D. 11 Fitness Myths That Are Doing More Harm Than Good [Internet]. IFLScience. IFLScience; 2017 [cited 2018 Oct 30]. Available from:


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
1. Government Accountability Office. Need for the Law Enforcement Assistance Administration To Improve Certain Aspects of Its Management of the Law Enforcement Education Program. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office; 1973 Oct. Report No.: 089486.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
1. Goodwin RH. Case study of the voluntary student transfer program: The perspectives of African American students and parent participants in one midwestern school district [Doctoral dissertation]. [ St. Charles, MO]: Lindenwood University; 2013.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
1. Oestreich JR. An Operatic Love Big Enough for a Vast Hall. New York Times. 2016 Nov 6;C5.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleThe Nucleus
AbbreviationNucleus (Calcutta)
ISSN (print)0029-568X
ISSN (online)0976-7975
ScopeCell Biology
Molecular Biology
Molecular Medicine

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