How to format your references using the Clinical Hypertension citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Clinical Hypertension. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
1. Ciufolini I. Dragging of inertial frames. Nature. 2007;449:41–7.
A journal article with 2 authors
1. Hauert C, Doebeli M. Spatial structure often inhibits the evolution of cooperation in the snowdrift game. Nature. 2004;428:643–6.
A journal article with 3 authors
1. Eagleman DM, Jacobson JE, Sejnowski TJ. Perceived luminance depends on temporal context. Nature. 2004;428:854–6.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
1. Karski M, Förster L, Choi J-M, Steffen A, Alt W, Meschede D, et al. Quantum walk in position space with single optically trapped atoms. Science. 2009;325:174–7.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
1. Vaseghi SV. Advanced Digital Signal Processing and Noise Reduction. Chichester, UK: John Wiley & Sons, Ltd; 2006.
An edited book
1. Zaheer S. Practical Oracle E-Business Suite: An Implementation and Management Guide. Arslan E, editor. Berkeley, CA: Apress; 2016.
A chapter in an edited book
1. Hutt A. Finite Propagation Speeds in Spatially Extended Systems. In: Atay FM, editor. Complex Time-Delay Systems: Theory and Applications. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer; 2010. p. 151–76.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Clinical Hypertension.

Blog post
1. Andrew E. Filmmaker Gets Up Close And Personal With Massive Hammerhead Sharks [Internet]. IFLScience. IFLScience; 2015 [cited 2018 Oct 30]. Available from:


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
1. Government Accountability Office. Agricultural Research and Development and Extension Activities. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office; 1982 Jul. Report No.: 119114.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
1. McPherson CA. Characterization of the neurogenic microenvironment in the mouse hippocampus following chemical-induced neuronal injury [Doctoral dissertation]. [Chapel Hill, NC]: University of North Carolina; 2012.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
1. Herskovic L. Blunt Doctor Cures Headaches. New York Times. 2013 Apr 1;A14.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleClinical Hypertension
AbbreviationClin. Hypertens.
ISSN (online)2056-5909

Other styles