How to format your references using the The New England Journal of Medicine citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for The New England Journal of Medicine (NEJM). For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Ulbricht M. Materials science: gating mechanism under pressure. Nature 2015;519(7541):41–2.
A journal article with 2 authors
Keene WC, Pszenny AAP. Comment on “Reactions at interfaces as a source of sulfate formation in sea-salt particles” (I). Science 2004;303(5658):628; author reply 628.
A journal article with 3 authors
Goddard MR, Godfray HCJ, Burt A. Sex increases the efficacy of natural selection in experimental yeast populations. Nature 2005;434(7033):636–40.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
Cissé M, Halabisky B, Harris J, et al. Reversing EphB2 depletion rescues cognitive functions in Alzheimer model. Nature 2011;469(7328):47–52.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Islam MR, Chhetri AB, Khan MM. The Greening of Petroleum Operations. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.; 2010.
An edited book
Lucey TA. A Critically Compassionate Approach to Financial Literacy. Rotterdam: SensePublishers; 2015.
A chapter in an edited book
Corona I, Giacinto G, Roli F. Intrusion Detection in Computer Systems Using Multiple Classifier Systems. In: Okun O, Valentini G, editors. Supervised and Unsupervised Ensemble Methods and their Applications. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer; 2008. p. 91–113.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for The New England Journal of Medicine.

Blog post
Hale T. Photos Of Florida Panther Kittens Show This Rare Subspecies Is On The Up [Internet]. IFLScience. 2017 [cited 2018 Oct 30];Available from:


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. Research and Development Programs With Regard to Short-Term Weather Phenomena. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office; 1977.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Obasi FI. Policy analysis of the Fostering Connections to Success and Increasing Adoptions Act of 2008. 2012;

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Rothenberg B. Fear, Frustration and Fascination: Sharapova on Serena. New York Times. 2017;B10.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in superscript:

This sentence cites one reference 1.
This sentence cites two references 1,2.
This sentence cites four references 1–4.

About the journal

Full journal titleThe New England Journal of Medicine
AbbreviationN. Engl. J. Med.
ISSN (print)0028-4793
ISSN (online)1533-4406
ScopeGeneral Medicine

Other styles