How to format your references using the The New England Journal of Medicine citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for The New England Journal of Medicine (NEJM). For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
1.
Chemler SR. Chemistry. Copper’s contribution to amination catalysis. Science 2013;341(6146):624–6.
A journal article with 2 authors
1.
Li N, Ren J. Non-reciprocal geometric wave diode by engineering asymmetric shapes of nonlinear materials. Sci Rep 2014;4:6228.
A journal article with 3 authors
1.
Gong M, Kirkeminde A, Ren S. Symmetry-defying iron pyrite (FeS₂) nanocrystals through oriented attachment. Sci Rep 2013;3:2092.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
1.
Pasqualucci L, Dominguez-Sola D, Chiarenza A, et al. Inactivating mutations of acetyltransferase genes in B-cell lymphoma. Nature 2011;471(7337):189–95.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
1.
Vander Vorst A, Rosen A, Kotsuka Y. RF/Microwave Interaction with Biological Tissues. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.; 2005.
An edited book
1.
Chen JZM. Canadian-Daoist Poetics, Ethics, and Aesthetics: An Interdisciplinary and Cross-cultural Study. 1st ed. 2015. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer; 2016.
A chapter in an edited book
1.
Tan L. A Residual Energy-Based Fairness Scheduling MAC Protocol for Wireless Sensor Networks. In: Gao H, Lim L, Wang W, Li C, Chen L, editors. Web-Age Information Management: 13th International Conference, WAIM 2012, Harbin, China, August 18-20, 2012. Proceedings. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer; 2012. p. 35–46.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for The New England Journal of Medicine.

Blog post
1.
Luntz S. Almost A Third Of New FDA-Approved Pharmaceuticals Have Post-Trial Safety Events [Internet]. IFLScience. 2017 [cited 2018 Oct 30];Available from: https://www.iflscience.com/health-and-medicine/almost-a-third-of-new-fda-approved-pharmaceuticals-have-post-trial-safety-events/

Reports

This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
1.
Government Accountability Office. Highlights of a Forum: Data and Analytics Innovation: Emerging Opportunities and Challenges. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office; 2016.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
1.
Toler RL. Structural Equation Modeling of Advertising Involvement, Consumer Attitude, and Engagement for Video Advertising in a Social Networking Site. 2017;

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
1.
Buckley C. In the Shadow of Towers. New York Times. 2013;A26.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in superscript:

This sentence cites one reference 1.
This sentence cites two references 1,2.
This sentence cites four references 1–4.

About the journal

Full journal titleThe New England Journal of Medicine
AbbreviationN. Engl. J. Med.
ISSN (print)0028-4793
ISSN (online)1533-4406
ScopeGeneral Medicine

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