How to format your references using the European Addiction Research citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for European Addiction Research. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Katsnelson A. Drug development: The modelling challenge. Nature. 2014 Apr;508(7494):S8-9.
A journal article with 2 authors
Stocker R, Durham WM. Microbiology. Tumbling for stealth? Science. 2009 Jul;325(5939):400–2.
A journal article with 3 authors
Blackstone E, Morrison M, Roth MB. H2S induces a suspended animation-like state in mice. Science. 2005 Apr;308(5721):518.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
Zwierlein MW, Schunck CH, Schirotzek A, Ketterle W. Direct observation of the superfluid phase transition in ultracold Fermi gases. Nature. 2006 Jul;442(7098):54–8.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Center for Chemical Process Safety. Guidelines for Managing Process Safety Risks During Organizational Change. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.; 2013.
An edited book
Stange C, editor. Carotenoids in Nature: Biosynthesis, Regulation and Function. Cham: Springer International Publishing; 2016.
A chapter in an edited book
Tohmé FA, Bodanza GA, Simari GR. Aggregation of Attack Relations: A Social-Choice Theoretical Analysis of Defeasibility Criteria. In: Hartmann S, Kern-Isberner G, editors. Foundations of Information and Knowledge Systems: 5th International Symposium, FoIKS 2008, Pisa, Italy, February 11-15, 2008. Proceedings. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer; 2008; pp 8–23.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for European Addiction Research.

Blog post
Fang J. Climate Warming is Turning Mummies into Black Ooze [Internet]. IFLScience. 2015 Mar


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. Gender Equity: Men’s and Women’s Participation in Higher Education. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office; 2000.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Delcambre ML. Finite Difference Schemes for a Structured Model of Mycobacterium marinum. 2014

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Neuman W. Brutal Past and Promising Future Clash in Colombian City. New York Times. 2015 Jul;A4.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleEuropean Addiction Research
AbbreviationEur. Addict. Res.
ISSN (print)1022-6877
ISSN (online)1421-9891
ScopeMedicine (miscellaneous)
Psychiatry and Mental health
Health(social science)

Other styles