How to format your references using the European Addiction Research citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for European Addiction Research. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Smith DC. Marine biology. Expansion of the marine Archaea. Science. 2001 Jul;293(5527):56–7.
A journal article with 2 authors
Hoffmann AA, Sgrò CM. Climate change and evolutionary adaptation. Nature. 2011 Feb;470(7335):479–85.
A journal article with 3 authors
Meza LR, Das S, Greer JR. Strong, lightweight, and recoverable three-dimensional ceramic nanolattices. Science. 2014 Sep;345(6202):1322–6.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
Yuan S, Wang J, Zhu D, Wang N, Gao Q, Chen W, et al. Cryo-EM structure of a herpesvirus capsid at 3.1 Å. Science. 2018 Apr;360(6384).

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Gasch A, Gasch B. Successfully Choosing Your EMR. Oxford, UK: Wiley-Blackwell; 2010.
An edited book
Mueller-Hoeppe D, Loehnert S, Reese S, editors. Recent Developments and Innovative Applications in Computational Mechanics. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer; 2011.
A chapter in an edited book
Joarde R, Crundwell N. Consolidation. In: Joarde R, Crundwell N, editors. Chest X-Ray in Clinical Practice. London: Springer; 2009; pp 57–66.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for European Addiction Research.

Blog post
Andrews R. An Enormous Crack Has Suddenly Appeared In The Mountain Range Near Yellowstone [Internet]. IFLScience. 2015 Oct [cited 2018 Oct 30]. Available from:


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. Problems and Needed Improvements in Evaluating Office of Education Programs. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office; 1977.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Prendergast CA. Nontraditional online students perceptions on student success conditions. 2017

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Vecsey G. Islanders Leaving, the Glory Long Gone. New York Times. 2012 Oct;B11.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleEuropean Addiction Research
AbbreviationEur. Addict. Res.
ISSN (print)1022-6877
ISSN (online)1421-9891
ScopeMedicine (miscellaneous)
Psychiatry and Mental health
Health(social science)

Other styles