How to format your references using the European Addiction Research citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for European Addiction Research. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Lill R. Function and biogenesis of iron-sulphur proteins. Nature. 2009 Aug;460(7257):831–8.
A journal article with 2 authors
Spero HJ, Lea DW. The cause of carbon isotope minimum events on glacial terminations. Science. 2002 Apr;296(5567):522–5.
A journal article with 3 authors
Kasuya A, Sakabe J-I, Tokura Y. Potential application of in vivo imaging of impaired lymphatic duct to evaluate the severity of pressure ulcer in mouse model. Sci Rep. 2014 Feb;4:4173.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
Conway H, Catania G, Raymond CF, Gades AM, Scambos TA, Engelhardt H. Switch of flow direction in an Antarctic ice stream. Nature. 2002 Oct;419(6906):465–7.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Evans AW. Economics, Real Estate and the Supply of Land. Oxford, UK: Blackwell Publishing Ltd; 2008.
An edited book
Bartolini N, Nikoletseas S, Sinha P, Cardellini V, Mahanti A, editors. Quality of Service in Heterogeneous Networks: 6th International ICST Conference on Heterogeneous Networking for Quality, Reliability, Security and Robustness, QShine 2009 and 3rd International Workshop on Advanced Architectures and Algorithms for Internet Delivery and Applications, AAA-IDEA 2009, Las Palmas, Gran Canaria, November 23-25, 2009 Proceedings. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer; 2009.
A chapter in an edited book
Chehab EW, Braam J. Jasmonates in Plant Defense Responses. In: Witzany G, Baluška F, editors. Biocommunication of Plants. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer; 2012; pp 67–88.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for European Addiction Research.

Blog post
Hale T. What Are All The Elements In The Periodic Table Actually Used For? [Internet]. IFLScience. 2016 Nov [cited 2018 Oct 30]. Available from:


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. Aerospace Plane Technology: Research and Development Efforts in Europe. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office; 1991.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Smith GS. The relationship between legislative implementations and educator readiness in inclusive educational environments. 2008

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Kelly S. Op-Art. New York Times. 2002 Jun;A21.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleEuropean Addiction Research
AbbreviationEur. Addict. Res.
ISSN (print)1022-6877
ISSN (online)1421-9891
ScopeMedicine (miscellaneous)
Psychiatry and Mental health
Health(social science)

Other styles