How to format your references using the Carbohydrate Research citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Carbohydrate Research. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
[1]
M. Gotta, Journal club. A cell biologist connects her research to bacterial brain invasion, Nature. 463 (2010) 139.
A journal article with 2 authors
[1]
W.J. Song, F.A. Tezcan, A designed supramolecular protein assembly with in vivo enzymatic activity, Science. 346 (2014) 1525–1528.
A journal article with 3 authors
[1]
J.X. Mitrovica, N. Gomez, P.U. Clark, The sea-level fingerprint of West Antarctic collapse, Science. 323 (2009) 753.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
[1]
M.M. Adachi, A.J. Labelle, S.M. Thon, X. Lan, S. Hoogland, E.H. Sargent, Broadband solar absorption enhancement via periodic nanostructuring of electrodes, Sci. Rep. 3 (2013) 2928.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
[1]
P. Ribéreau-Gayon, D. Dubourdieu, B. Donèche, A. Lonvaud, Handbook of Enology, John Wiley & Sons, Ltd, Chichester, UK, 2006.
An edited book
[1]
F. Ricciardi, A. Harfouche, eds., Information and Communication Technologies in Organizations and Society: Past, Present and Future Issues, 1st ed. 2016, Springer International Publishing, Cham, 2016.
A chapter in an edited book
[1]
R.T. Jones, K.D. Burns, C.S. Immel, R.M. Moore, K. Schwartz-Goel, B. Culpepper, The Impact of Hurricane Katrina on Children and Adolescents: Conceptual and Methodological Implications for Assessment and Intervention, in: K.E. Cherry (Ed.), Lifespan Perspectives on Natural Disasters: Coping with Katrina, Rita, and Other Storms, Springer US, New York, NY, 2009: pp. 65–94.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Carbohydrate Research.

Blog post
[1]
J. O`Callaghan, Astronomers Asked To Observe “Alien Megastructure Star” In More Detail, IFLScience. (2015).

Reports

This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
[1]
Government Accountability Office, Federal Retirement Processing: Applying Information Technology Acquisition Best Practices Could Help OPM Overcome a Long History of Unsuccessful Modernization Efforts, U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC, 2014.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
[1]
E.K. Kraka, Assessment of herbicides for control of non-native species: Italian ryegrass (Lolium perenne spp. multiflorum ), tropical spiderwort (Commelina benghalensis), and tropical soda apple (Solanum viarum), Doctoral dissertation, Mississippi State University, 2012.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
[1]
K. Candaele, Postcards From the Edge: The Houston Nomads, New York Times. (1992) 81.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleCarbohydrate Research
AbbreviationCarbohydr. Res.
ISSN (print)0008-6215
ScopeBiochemistry
Analytical Chemistry
Organic Chemistry
General Medicine

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