How to format your references using the Carbohydrate Research citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Carbohydrate Research. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
N. Juergens, The biological underpinnings of Namib Desert fairy circles, Science. 339 (2013) 1618–1621.
A journal article with 2 authors
M. Cruz, R. Coontz, Galaxy evolution. A universe of galaxies. Introduction, Science. 333 (2011) 169.
A journal article with 3 authors
Y. Luo, L. White, D. Hui, Comment on “Impacts of fine root turnover on forest NPP and soil C sequestration potential,” Science. 304 (2004) 1745; author reply 1745.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
A. Sánchez-Lavega, T. del Río-Gaztelurrutia, R. Hueso, J.M. Gómez-Forrellad, J.F. Sanz-Requena, J. Legarreta, E. García-Melendo, F. Colas, J. Lecacheux, L.N. Fletcher, D. Barrado-Navascués, D. Parker, International Outer Planet Watch Team, Deep winds beneath Saturn’s upper clouds from a seasonal long-lived planetary-scale storm, Nature. 475 (2011) 71–74.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
J. Cornier, A. Owen, A. Kwade, M. Van de Voorde, Pharmaceutical Nanotechnology: Innovation and Production, Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim, Germany, 2017.
An edited book
D. Whittaker, S. Lappan, eds., The Gibbons: New Perspectives on Small Ape Socioecology and Population Biology, Springer, New York, NY, 2009.
A chapter in an edited book
G. Nimmo, Technology Roadmapping on the Industry Level: Experiences from Canada, in: M.G. Moehrle, R. Isenmann, R. Phaal (Eds.), Technology Roadmapping for Strategy and Innovation: Charting the Route to Success, Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg, 2013: pp. 47–65.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Carbohydrate Research.

Blog post
S. Luntz, Two Studies Conclude That Fracking Bad For Health, IFLScience. (2015). (accessed October 30, 2018).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office, Options to Enhance the Long-term Viability of the Essential Air Service Program, U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC, 2002.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
A. Prakash, Empire on the Seine: Surveillance, Citizenship, and North African Migrants in Paris (1925–1975), Doctoral dissertation, Columbia University, 2010.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
P. Baker, M.D. Shear, Trump Stirs a New Question: Are There Tapes?, New York Times. (2017) A1.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleCarbohydrate Research
AbbreviationCarbohydr. Res.
ISSN (print)0008-6215
Analytical Chemistry
Organic Chemistry
General Medicine

Other styles