How to format your references using the Carbohydrate Research citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Carbohydrate Research. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
J.M. Chase, Stochastic community assembly causes higher biodiversity in more productive environments, Science. 328 (2010) 1388–1391.
A journal article with 2 authors
C.A. Micchelli, N. Perrimon, Evidence that stem cells reside in the adult Drosophila midgut epithelium, Nature. 439 (2006) 475–479.
A journal article with 3 authors
J.J. McGuire, M.S. Boettcher, T.H. Jordan, Foreshock sequences and short-term earthquake predictability on East Pacific Rise transform faults, Nature. 434 (2005) 457–461.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
A. Honaramooz, A. Snedaker, M. Boiani, H. Schöler, I. Dobrinski, S. Schlatt, Sperm from neonatal mammalian testes grafted in mice, Nature. 418 (2002) 778–781.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
L. Cerroni, K. Gatter, H. Kerl, Skin Lymphoma: The Illustrated Guide, Wiley-Blackwell, Oxford, UK, 2009.
An edited book
V. Timofeev, D. Sanvitto, eds., Exciton Polaritons in Microcavities: New Frontiers, Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg, 2012.
A chapter in an edited book
F. Wang, G. Agrawal, R. Jin, Query Planning for Searching Inter-dependent Deep-Web Databases, in: B. Ludäscher, N. Mamoulis (Eds.), Scientific and Statistical Database Management: 20th International Conference, SSDBM 2008, Hong Kong, China, July 9-11, 2008 Proceedings, Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg, 2008: pp. 24–41.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Carbohydrate Research.

Blog post
R. Andrews, Crop Breeding Cannot Keep Up With Climate Change, IFLScience. (2016). (accessed October 30, 2018).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office, Commercial Aviation: Impact of Airline Crew Scheduling on Delays and Cancellations of Commercial Flights, U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC, 2008.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
R.D. Toothaker, A phenomenological study of millennial students and traditional pedagogies, Doctoral dissertation, University of Phoenix, 2014.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
G. Vecsey, In Yanks-Phillies Rivalry, a Wife May Have Been the Key Player, New York Times. (2011) SP3.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleCarbohydrate Research
AbbreviationCarbohydr. Res.
ISSN (print)0008-6215
Analytical Chemistry
Organic Chemistry
General Medicine

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