How to format your references using the Carbohydrate Research citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Carbohydrate Research. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
H. Varmus, The new era in cancer research, Science. 312 (2006) 1162–1165.
A journal article with 2 authors
M.R. Showalter, D.P. Hamilton, Resonant interactions and chaotic rotation of Pluto’s small moons, Nature. 522 (2015) 45–49.
A journal article with 3 authors
H.E. Brooks, G.W. Carbin, P.T. Marsh, Increased variability of tornado occurrence in the United States, Science. 346 (2014) 349–352.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
P. Chu, D.P. Chen, Y.L. Wang, Y.L. Xie, Z.B. Yan, J.G. Wan, J.-M. Liu, J.Y. Li, Kinetics of 90° domain wall motions and high frequency mesoscopic dielectric response in strained ferroelectrics: a phase-field simulation, Sci. Rep. 4 (2014) 5007.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
T. Bécherrawy, Mechanical and Electromagnetic Vibrations and Waves, John Wiley & Sons, Inc, Hoboken, NJ, 2012.
An edited book
A. Fuchs, E. Nijman, H.-H. Priebsch, eds., Automotive NVH Technology, Springer International Publishing, Cham, 2016.
A chapter in an edited book
G. Carvalho, A. Carvalho, E. Rocha, A. Cavalcanti, A. Sampaio, A Formal Model for Natural-Language Timed Requirements of Reactive Systems, in: S. Merz, J. Pang (Eds.), Formal Methods and Software Engineering: 16th International Conference on Formal Engineering Methods, ICFEM 2014, Luxembourg, Luxembourg, November 3-5, 2014. Proceedings, Springer International Publishing, Cham, 2014: pp. 43–58.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Carbohydrate Research.

Blog post
J. Fang, New Horned Dino Sported Gnarly Headgear with a Curly Frill, IFLScience. (2015).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office, National Aeronautics and Space Administration: Significant Actions Needed to Address Long-standing Financial Management Problems, U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC, 2004.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Y.-T. Hsu, Input and Uptake in High School EFL Students’ Multiple-Draft Writing Process: A Case Study of a Taiwanese High School EFL Classroom, Doctoral dissertation, Indiana University, 2017.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
L. Saslow, After the Storm, a Sigh of Relief, New York Times. (2007) LI2.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleCarbohydrate Research
AbbreviationCarbohydr. Res.
ISSN (print)0008-6215
Analytical Chemistry
Organic Chemistry
General Medicine

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