How to format your references using the International Journal of Geo-Engineering citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for International Journal of Geo-Engineering. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Lemke P (2001) Climate. Open windows to the polar oceans. Science 292:1670–1671
A journal article with 2 authors
Tuthill PG, Lloyd JP (2007) A symmetric bipolar nebula around MWC 922. Science 316:247
A journal article with 3 authors
Jones MR, Seeman NC, Mirkin CA (2015) Nanomaterials. Programmable materials and the nature of the DNA bond. Science 347:1260901
A journal article with 5 or more authors
Seisenberger G, Ried MU, Endress T, et al (2001) Real-time single-molecule imaging of the infection pathway of an adeno-associated virus. Science 294:1929–1932

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Dosil J (2008) Eating Disorders in Athletes. John Wiley & Sons, Ltd, Chichester, West Sussex, England
An edited book
Hülsmann M, Pfeffermann N (2011) Strategies and Communications for Innovations: An Integrative Management View for Companies and Networks. Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg
A chapter in an edited book
Brandt B (2014) “I have a little job for you.” In: Kortenkamp U, Brandt B, Benz C, et al (eds) Early Mathematics Learning: Selected Papers of the POEM 2012 Conference. Springer, New York, NY, pp 55–70

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for International Journal of Geo-Engineering.

Blog post
Taub B (2016) Just Be Yourself: Each Shark Has Its Own Personality. In: IFLScience. Accessed 30 Oct 2018


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office (2008) Bureau of Indian Education: Improving Interior’s Assistance Would Aid Tribal Groups Developing Academic Accountability Systems. U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Kramer KA (2010) System for Identifying Plankton from the SIPPER Instrument Platform. Doctoral dissertation, University of South Florida

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Oestreich JR (2016) A Firm Grip Brandished During a Low-Key Debut. New York Times C1

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1, 2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleInternational Journal of Geo-Engineering
ISSN (print)2092-9196
ISSN (online)2198-2783

Other styles