How to format your references using the International Journal of Geo-Engineering citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for International Journal of Geo-Engineering. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Clayton J (2010) Chagas disease 101. Nature 465:S4-5
A journal article with 2 authors
von Storch H, Stehr N (2000) Climate change in perspective. Nature 405:615
A journal article with 3 authors
Li J, Zhu L, Gummerum M (2014) The relationship between moral judgment and cooperation in children with high-functioning autism. Sci Rep 4:4314
A journal article with 5 or more authors
Shiozawa H, Bachmatiuk A, Stangl A, et al (2013) Microscopic insight into the bilateral formation of carbon spirals from a symmetric iron core. Sci Rep 3:1840

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Levene M (2010) An Introduction to Search Engines and Web Navigation. John Wiley & Sons, Inc., Hoboken, NJ
An edited book
Dai X, Rong X (2012) Metric and Differential Geometry: The Jeff Cheeger Anniversary Volume. Springer, Basel
A chapter in an edited book
Ramón-Vigo R, Pérez-Higueras N, Caballero F, Merino L (2016) A Framework for Modelling Local Human-Robot Interactions Based on Unsupervised Learning. In: Agah A, Cabibihan J-J, Howard AM, et al (eds) Social Robotics: 8th International Conference, ICSR 2016, Kansas City, MO, USA, November 1-3, 2016 Proceedings. Springer International Publishing, Cham, pp 32–41

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for International Journal of Geo-Engineering.

Blog post
Andrew E (2015) Is Depression a Mental or Physical Illness? Unravelling the Inflammation Hypothesis. In: IFLScience. Accessed 30 Oct 2018


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office (1997) Federal Research: DOD’s Small Business Innovation Research Program. U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Zhu Z (2010) Financial restatements: Implications for management earnings forecasts. Doctoral dissertation, George Washington University

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Vecsey G (2010) Yes, Luis Castillo Is Still With the Mets. New York Times B13

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1, 2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleInternational Journal of Geo-Engineering
ISSN (print)2092-9196
ISSN (online)2198-2783

Other styles