How to format your references using the The Malaysian Journal of Pathology citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for The Malaysian Journal of Pathology. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Nee S. The great chain of being. Nature. 2005 May 26;435(7041):429.
A journal article with 2 authors
Dunbar RIM, Shultz S. Evolution in the social brain. Science. 2007 Sep 7;317(5843):1344–7.
A journal article with 3 authors
Nuth JA 3rd, Hill HG, Kletetschka G. Determining the ages of comets from the fraction of crystalline dust. Nature. 2000 Jul 20;406(6793):275–6.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
Mathews DJH, Donovan P, Harris J, Lovell-Badge R, Savulescu J, Faden R. Science and law. Integrity in international stem cell research collaborations. Science. 2006 Aug 18;313(5789):921–2.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Lacalle D. Life in the Financial Markets. Chichester, UK: John Wiley & Sons, Ltd; 2014.
An edited book
Bolc L, Tadeusiewicz R, Chmielewski LJ, Wojciechowski K, editors. Computer Vision and Graphics: International Conference, ICCVG 2012, Warsaw, Poland, September 24-26, 2012. Proceedings. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer; 2012. XVI, 755 p. 376 illus. (Lecture Notes in Computer Science; vol. 7594).
A chapter in an edited book
Gunasekara AS, Rubin AL, Goh KS, Spurlock FC, Tjeerdema RS. Environmental Fate and Toxicology of Carbaryl. In: Whitacre DM, editor. Reviews of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology Vol 196. New York, NY: Springer US; 2008. p. 95–121. (Reviews of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology).

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for The Malaysian Journal of Pathology.

Blog post
Andrew E. Epilepsy: Sorting The Myths From The Facts Of A Common Disorder. IFLScience. IFLScience; 2015.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. Food Assistance: Schools That Left the National School Lunch Program. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office; 1993 Dec. Report No.: RCED-94-36BR.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Birtler ER. Group therapy and knowledge of neuroplastic principles: The impact of health literacy on client locus of control in a therapy setting [Doctoral dissertation]. [Long Beach, CA]: California State University, Long Beach; 2014.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Hirsch GA. Building Their Sport Stride By Stride. New York Times. 2013 Oct 29;B15.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in superscript:

This sentence cites one reference 1.
This sentence cites two references 1,2.
This sentence cites four references 1–4.

About the journal

Full journal titleThe Malaysian Journal of Pathology
ISSN (print)0126-8635

Other styles