How to format your references using the The Malaysian Journal of Pathology citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for The Malaysian Journal of Pathology. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Silk JB. Social components of fitness in primate groups. Science. 2007 Sep 7;317(5843):1347–51.
A journal article with 2 authors
Cohen SM, Brennecke J. Developmental biology. Mixed messages in early development. Science. 2006 Apr 7;312(5770):65–6.
A journal article with 3 authors
Pettifer RF, Collins SP, Laundy D. Quadrupole transitions revealed by Borrmann spectroscopy. Nature. 2008 Jul 10;454(7201):196–9.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
William J, Euler C, Christensen S, Shlomchik MJ. Evolution of autoantibody responses via somatic hypermutation outside of germinal centers. Science. 2002 Sep 20;297(5589):2066–70.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Monks RAG, Reed Lajoux A, LeBaron D. Corporate Valuation for Portfolio Investment. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.; 2010.
An edited book
Verbauwhede IMR, editor. Secure Integrated Circuits and Systems. Boston, MA: Springer US; 2010. X, 246 p. 92 illus. (Integrated Circuits and Systems).
A chapter in an edited book
Cahill J, Strawn N. Algebraic Geometry and Finite Frames. In: Casazza PG, Kutyniok G, editors. Finite Frames: Theory and Applications. Boston, MA: Birkhäuser; 2013. p. 141–70.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for The Malaysian Journal of Pathology.

Blog post
Andrew E. Why We’ll All Learn To Love Genetically Modified Salmonella In The End. IFLScience. IFLScience; 2015.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. Examination of Disbursing Officer’s Account, U.S. Army Quartermaster School, Fort Lee, Virginia. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office; 1976 Dec. Report No.: 089079.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Drake DA. Viscoelastic characterization of vapor-grown carbon nanofiber/vinyl ester nanocomposites using a response surface methodology [Doctoral dissertation]. [Mississippi State, MS]: Mississippi State University; 2013.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Wagner J. Mets Add Familia To Long List Of Injured. New York Times. 2017 May 11;B13.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in superscript:

This sentence cites one reference 1.
This sentence cites two references 1,2.
This sentence cites four references 1–4.

About the journal

Full journal titleThe Malaysian Journal of Pathology
ISSN (print)0126-8635

Other styles