How to format your references using the The Malaysian Journal of Pathology citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for The Malaysian Journal of Pathology. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Nicholls H. The art of conservation. Nature. 2011 Apr 21;472(7343):287–9.
A journal article with 2 authors
Allen RM, Kanamori H. The potential for earthquake early warning in southern California. Science. 2003 May 2;300(5620):786–9.
A journal article with 3 authors
Rawson PD, Yund PO, Lindsay SM. Comment on “Divergent induced responses to an invasive predator in marine mussel populations.” Science. 2007 Apr 6;316(5821):53; author reply 53.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
Fang C, Frontiera RR, Tran R, Mathies RA. Mapping GFP structure evolution during proton transfer with femtosecond Raman spectroscopy. Nature. 2009 Nov 12;462(7270):200–4.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Kagan E, Ben-Gal I. Probabilistic Search for Tracking Targets. Chichester, UK: John Wiley & Sons, Ltd; 2013.
An edited book
Krey U. Basic Theoretical Physics: A Concise Overview. Owen A, editor. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer; 2007. XVI, 452 p. 31 illus.
A chapter in an edited book
Li C, Xu L, Ye F, Chen J. An Adaptive Error Concealment Algorithm Based on Partition Model. In: Tan T, Wang G, Wang S, Liu Y, Yuan X, He R, et al., editors. Advances in Image and Graphics Technologies: 11th Chinese Conference, IGTA 2016, Beijing, China, July 8-9, 2016, Proceedings. Singapore: Springer; 2016. p. 35–43. (Communications in Computer and Information Science).

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for The Malaysian Journal of Pathology.

Blog post
Andrew E. Poor Semen Quality May Be A Warning Sign Of Other Health Issues [Internet]. IFLScience. IFLScience; 2014 [cited 2018 Oct 30]. Available from:


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. Regulatory Flexibility in Schools: What Happens When Schools Are Allowed to Change the Rules? Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office; 1994 Apr. Report No.: HEHS-94-102.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Mullican CD. Multiple Intelligences in the Text: Examining the Presence of Multiple Intelligences Tasks in the Annotated Teacher’s Editions of Four High School United States History Textbooks [Doctoral dissertation]. [Tampa, FL]: University of South Florida; 2012.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Schuman M. A Heartland’s Flickering Pulse. New York Times. 2017 Aug 22;B1.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in superscript:

This sentence cites one reference 1.
This sentence cites two references 1,2.
This sentence cites four references 1–4.

About the journal

Full journal titleThe Malaysian Journal of Pathology
ISSN (print)0126-8635

Other styles