How to format your references using the The Lichenologist citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for The Lichenologist. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Barnes, W. J. P. (2007) Materials science. Biomimetic solutions to sticky problems. Science (New York, N.Y.) 318: 203–204.
A journal article with 2 authors
Politi, Y. & Weaver, J. C. (2015) Biomineralization. Built for tough conditions. Science (New York, N.Y.) 347: 712–713.
A journal article with 3 authors
Gill, D. L., Spassova, M. A. & Soboloff, J. (2006) Signal transduction. Calcium entry signals--trickles and torrents. Science (New York, N.Y.) 313: 183–184.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Zhuang, Z., Frerich, J. M., Huntoon, K., Yang, C., Merrill, M. J., Abdullaev, Z., Pack, S. D., Shively, S. B., Stamp, G. & Lonser, R. R. (2014) Tumor derived vasculogenesis in von Hippel-Lindau disease-associated tumors. Scientific reports 4: 4102.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Van Der Pijl, P., Solomon, L. K. & Lokitz, J. (2016) How To Design a Better Business. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
An edited book
Ayala, J. L., García-Cámara, B., Prieto, M., Ruggiero, M. & Sicard, G. (Eds.) (2011) Integrated Circuit and System Design. Power and Timing Modeling, Optimization, and Simulation: 21st International Workshop, PATMOS 2011, Madrid, Spain, September 26-29, 2011. Proceedings. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer.
A chapter in an edited book
Roussopoulos, N. & Utz, W. (2016) Design Semantics on Accessibility in Unstructured Data Environments. Domain-Specific Conceptual Modeling: Concepts, Methods and Tools (D. Karagiannis, (H. C. Mayr & (J. Mylopoulos, eds): pp. 79–101. Cham: Springer International Publishing.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for The Lichenologist.

Blog post
Fang, J. (2014) Five armored spiders discovered in Chinese caves. IFLScience.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office (2010) Preliminary Observations on the Potential Effects of the Proposed Performance Rights Act on the Recording and Broadcast Radio Industries. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Bennett, M. A. (2017) The Underrepresentation of Registered Nurses in Hospital CEO Positions: A Grounded Theory Study.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Ratliff, B. (2016) An Online Record Shop for the Faster, Punker Set. New York Times: C1.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Barnes 2007).
This sentence cites two references (Barnes 2007; Politi & Weaver 2015).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Politi & Weaver 2015)
  • Three or more authors: (Zhuang et al. 2014)

About the journal

Full journal titleThe Lichenologist
ISSN (print)0024-2829
ISSN (online)1096-1135
ScopeEcology, Evolution, Behavior and Systematics

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