How to format your references using the The Lichenologist citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for The Lichenologist. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Fürstner, A. (2013) Teaching metathesis ‘simple’ stereochemistry. Science (New York, N.Y.) 341: 1229713.
A journal article with 2 authors
Aderem, A. & Ulevitch, R. J. (2000) Toll-like receptors in the induction of the innate immune response. Nature 406: 782–787.
A journal article with 3 authors
DeLoache, J. S., Uttal, D. H. & Rosengren, K. S. (2004) Scale errors offer evidence for a perception-action dissociation early in life. Science (New York, N.Y.) 304: 1027–1029.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Islam, S. T., Huszczynski, S. M., Nugent, T., Gold, A. C. & Lam, J. S. (2013) Conserved-residue mutations in Wzy affect O-antigen polymerization and Wzz-mediated chain-length regulation in Pseudomonas aeruginosa PAO1. Scientific reports 3: 3441.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Padova, T. (2011) Adobe® Acrobat® X PDF Bible. Indianapolis, IN, USA: Wiley Publishing, Inc.
An edited book
Yamamoto, S. (Ed.) (2016) Human Interface and the Management of Information: Applications and Services: 18th International Conference, HCI International 2016 Toronto, Canada, July 17-22, 2016. Proceedings, Part II. Cham: Springer International Publishing.
A chapter in an edited book
Bearfield, G. & Marsh, W. (2005) Generalising Event Trees Using Bayesian Networks with a Case Study of Train Derailment. Computer Safety, Reliability, and Security: 24th International Conference, SAFECOMP 2005, Fredrikstad, Norway, September 28-30, 2005. Proceedings Lecture Notes in Computer Science. (R. Winther, (B. A. Gran & (G. Dahll, eds): pp. 52–66. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for The Lichenologist.

Blog post
Andrew, E. (2014) First Known Mass Extinction May Have Been Caused By Huge Volcanic Eruptions In Australia. IFLScience.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office (2014) Traffic Safety: Alcohol Ignition Interlocks Are Effective While Installed; Less Is Known about How to Increase Installation Rates. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Dickens, K. R. (2010) Factors influencing teacher job satisfaction and their alignment with current district practices in a suburban school district.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Kelly, C. (2008) Finishing Tarrytown Hall, in Nick of Time. New York Times: WE2.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Fürstner 2013).
This sentence cites two references (Aderem & Ulevitch 2000; Fürstner 2013).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Aderem & Ulevitch 2000)
  • Three or more authors: (Islam et al. 2013)

About the journal

Full journal titleThe Lichenologist
ISSN (print)0024-2829
ISSN (online)1096-1135
ScopeEcology, Evolution, Behavior and Systematics

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