How to format your references using the The Lichenologist citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for The Lichenologist. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Smaglik, P. (2004) The joy of the lab. Nature 431: 227.
A journal article with 2 authors
Redman, B. K. & Merz, J. F. (2008) Sociology. Scientific misconduct: do the punishments fit the crime? Science (New York, N.Y.) 321: 775.
A journal article with 3 authors
Sherwood, S. C., Lanzante, J. R. & Meyer, C. L. (2005) Radiosonde daytime biases and late-20th century warming. Science (New York, N.Y.) 309: 1556–1559.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Todo, Y., Kitazato, H., Hashimoto, J. & Gooday, A. J. (2005) Simple foraminifera flourish at the ocean’s deepest point. Science (New York, N.Y.) 307: 689.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Sturges, R. H., Jr (2014) Practical Field Robotics. Chichester, UK: John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
An edited book
Haubold, B. (2006) Introduction to Computational Biology: An Evolutionary Approach (T Wiehe, Ed.). Basel: Birkhäuser.
A chapter in an edited book
Fortun, K. & Morgan, A. (2016) Thinking Across Disaster. Mental Health and Social Issues Following a Nuclear Accident: The Case of Fukushima (J. Shigemura & (R. K. Chhem, eds): pp. 55–64. Tokyo: Springer Japan.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for The Lichenologist.

Blog post
Evans, K. (2017) 7-Year-Old Girl’s Awesome Letter To Google CEO Elicits Response “Keep Following Your Dreams”. IFLScience.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office (1992) Department of Education Grant Award. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Kelleher, A. (2017) Gendered Intent to Turnover Resulting from Workplace Bullying in Nursing and Medical Fields.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Kelly, S. (2002) Op-Art. New York Times: 415.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Smaglik 2004).
This sentence cites two references (Smaglik 2004; Redman & Merz 2008).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Redman & Merz 2008)
  • Three or more authors: (Todo et al. 2005)

About the journal

Full journal titleThe Lichenologist
ISSN (print)0024-2829
ISSN (online)1096-1135
ScopeEcology, Evolution, Behavior and Systematics

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