How to format your references using the The Lichenologist citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for The Lichenologist. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Savage, N. (2013) Resources: Mine, all mine! Nature 495: S2-3.
A journal article with 2 authors
Adlam, B. & Nowak, M. A. (2014) Universality of fixation probabilities in randomly structured populations. Scientific reports 4: 6692.
A journal article with 3 authors
Ben-Yehuda, S., Rudner, D. Z. & Losick, R. (2003) RacA, a bacterial protein that anchors chromosomes to the cell poles. Science (New York, N.Y.) 299: 532–536.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Grigg, S. P., Canales, C., Hay, A. & Tsiantis, M. (2005) SERRATE coordinates shoot meristem function and leaf axial patterning in Arabidopsis. Nature 437: 1022–1026.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Balani, K., Verma, V., Agarwal, A. & Narayan, R. (2014) Biosurfaces. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
An edited book
Phillips-Wren, G., Ichalkaranje, N. & Jain, L. C. (Eds.) (2008) Intelligent Decision Making: An AI-Based Approach. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer.
A chapter in an edited book
Dorożyński, T. & Kuna-Marszałek, A. (2016) Attracting FDI to the New EU Member States. Competitiveness of CEE Economies and Businesses: Multidisciplinary Perspectives on Challenges and Opportunities (P. Trąpczyński, (Ł. Puślecki & (M. Jarosiński, eds): pp. 65–87. Cham: Springer International Publishing.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for The Lichenologist.

Blog post
Andrew, E. (2015) Cancer Drugs Help Paralyzed Mice Walk Again. IFLScience.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office (1971) Assessment of the Teacher Corps Program at Northern Arizona University and Participating Schools on the Navajo and Hopi Indian Reservations. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Guarin, Y. (2017) A Postpartum Support Group for Women Experiencing Postpartum Depression: A Grant Proposal.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Kelly, C. (2000) Higher Profile for a Little-Known Foundation. New York Times: 14WC8.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Savage 2013).
This sentence cites two references (Savage 2013; Adlam & Nowak 2014).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Adlam & Nowak 2014)
  • Three or more authors: (Grigg et al. 2005)

About the journal

Full journal titleThe Lichenologist
ISSN (print)0024-2829
ISSN (online)1096-1135
ScopeEcology, Evolution, Behavior and Systematics

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