How to format your references using the The Lichenologist citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for The Lichenologist. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Czeisler, C. A. (2013) Perspective: casting light on sleep deficiency. Nature 497: S13.
A journal article with 2 authors
Goswami, P. & Baruah, J. (2014) Quantitative assessment of relative roles of drivers of acute respiratory diseases. Scientific reports 4: 6532.
A journal article with 3 authors
Dinner, A. R., Blackburn, G. M. & Karplus, M. (2001) Uracil-DNA glycosylase acts by substrate autocatalysis. Nature 413: 752–755.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Carey, J. B., Vrdoljak, A., O’Mahony, C., Hill, A. V. S., Draper, S. J. & Moore, A. C. (2014) Microneedle-mediated immunization of an adenovirus-based malaria vaccine enhances antigen-specific antibody immunity and reduces anti-vector responses compared to the intradermal route. Scientific reports 4: 6154.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Seeber, P. & Shander, A. (2012) Basics of Blood Management. Oxford, UK: Wiley-Blackwell.
An edited book
O’Neil, H. F., Perez, R. S. & Baker, E. L. (Eds.) (2014) Teaching and Measuring Cognitive Readiness. Boston, MA: Springer US.
A chapter in an edited book
Zhang, N. & Yue, X. (2014) Knowledge Granulation in Interval-Valued Information Systems Based on Maximal Consistent Blocks. Rough Sets and Knowledge Technology: 9th International Conference, RSKT 2014, Shanghai, China, October 24-26, 2014, Proceedings Lecture Notes in Computer Science. (D. Miao, (W. Pedrycz, (D. Ślȩzak, (G. Peters, (Q. Hu & (R. Wang, eds): pp. 49–58. Cham: Springer International Publishing.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for The Lichenologist.

Blog post
Carpineti, A. (2015) Physicists Discover Particle Made Entirely Of Nuclear Force. IFLScience.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office (2006) Small Business Innovation Research: Information on Awards Made by NIH and DoD in Fiscal Years 2001 through 2004. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Packer-Kinlaw, D. (2012) Anxious journeys: Past, present, and construction of identity in American travel writing.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Kelly, M. (1993) Man in the News; A Master of the Image: David Richmond Gergen. New York Times: 122.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Czeisler 2013).
This sentence cites two references (Czeisler 2013; Goswami & Baruah 2014).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Goswami & Baruah 2014)
  • Three or more authors: (Carey et al. 2014)

About the journal

Full journal titleThe Lichenologist
ISSN (print)0024-2829
ISSN (online)1096-1135
ScopeEcology, Evolution, Behavior and Systematics

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