How to format your references using the The Lichenologist citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for The Lichenologist. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
McNally, E. M. (2012) Genetics: broken giant linked to heart failure. Nature 483: 281–282.
A journal article with 2 authors
McInerney, J. O. & Pisani, D. (2007) Genetics. Paradigm for life. Science (New York, N.Y.) 318: 1390–1391.
A journal article with 3 authors
Rawson, P. D., Yund, P. O. & Lindsay, S. M. (2007) Comment on ‘Divergent induced responses to an invasive predator in marine mussel populations’. Science (New York, N.Y.) 316: 53; author reply 53.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Voyles, P. M., Muller, D. A., Grazul, J. L., Citrin, P. H. & Gossmann, H.-J. L. (2002) Atomic-scale imaging of individual dopant atoms and clusters in highly n-type bulk Si. Nature 416: 826–829.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Yakushevich, L. V. (2005) Nonlinear Physics of DNA. Weinheim, FRG: Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA.
An edited book
Suarez, C. E. (Ed.) (2016) Light Metals 2012. Cham: Springer International Publishing.
A chapter in an edited book
Abdullah, M. H., Saboor, A., Baig, I. A. & Arshad, M. (2016) Climate Change, Risk and Food Security: An Analysis of Wheat Crop in Pakistan. Climate Change Challenge (3C) and Social-Economic-Ecological Interface-Building: Exploring Potential Adaptation Strategies for Bio-resource Conservation and Livelihood Development Environmental Science and Engineering. (S. Nautiyal, (R. Schaldach, (K. V. Raju, (H. Kaechele, (B. Pritchard & (K. S. Rao, eds): pp. 41–63. Cham: Springer International Publishing.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for The Lichenologist.

Blog post
Andrew, E. (2016) Asteroids most likely Delivered Water To The Moon – Here’s How We Cracked It. IFLScience.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office (1987) Privatization of Federal Aviation Administration Functions. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Kaminsky, E. (2006) Schumann’s Op. 14: Original, Revised and Edited (‘Concerto without Orchestra’ versus Piano Sonata No. 3).

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Vecsey, G. (2010) By Honoring Their Past, the Giants Were Duly Rewarded. New York Times: B15.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (McNally 2012).
This sentence cites two references (McInerney & Pisani 2007; McNally 2012).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (McInerney & Pisani 2007)
  • Three or more authors: (Voyles et al. 2002)

About the journal

Full journal titleThe Lichenologist
ISSN (print)0024-2829
ISSN (online)1096-1135
ScopeEcology, Evolution, Behavior and Systematics

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