How to format your references using the American Journal of Surgical Pathology citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for American Journal of Surgical Pathology. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Bakardjiev A. Immunology: Stillbirth prevented by signal blockade. Nature 2015;520:627–628.
A journal article with 2 authors
Jansen VAA, van Baalen M. Altruism through beard chromodynamics. Nature 2006;440:663–666.
A journal article with 3 authors
Canfield DE, Poulton SW, Narbonne GM. Late-Neoproterozoic deep-ocean oxygenation and the rise of animal life. Science 2007;315:92–95.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Murakami KS, Masuda S, Campbell EA, et al. Structural basis of transcription initiation: an RNA polymerase holoenzyme-DNA complex. Science 2002;296:1285–1290.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Maudlin T. Quantum Non-Locality and Relativity. Oxford, UK: Wiley-Blackwell; 2011.
An edited book
Boër CR. Mass Customization and Sustainability: An assessment framework and industrial implementation. (Pedrazzoli P, Bettoni A, Sorlini M, eds.). London: Springer; 2013.
A chapter in an edited book
Hbid ML. INTRODUCTION TO HOPF BIFURCATION THEORY FOR DELAY DIFFERENTIAL EQUATIONS. In: Arino O, Hbid ML, Dads EA, eds. Delay Differential Equations and Applications. Dordrecht: Springer Netherlands; 2006:161–191.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for American Journal of Surgical Pathology.

Blog post
Andrew E. Populations Of Giant Pandas Rebound in China. IFLScience 2015. Available at: Accessed October 30, 2018.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. Postsecondary Education: Many States Collect Graduates’ Employment Information, but Clearer Guidance on Student Privacy Requirements Is Needed. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office; 2010.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Blackmar MD. Wagner domesticated, Wagner democratized: The parlor reception of Musikdrama. 2012.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Grynbaum MM, Steel E. Hannity Defends Fox News Leader. New York Times. April 28, 2017:B1.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in superscript:

This sentence cites one reference 1.
This sentence cites two references 1,2.
This sentence cites four references 1–4.

About the journal

Full journal titleAmerican Journal of Surgical Pathology
AbbreviationAm. J. Surg. Pathol.
ISSN (print)0147-5185
ISSN (online)1532-0979
Pathology and Forensic Medicine

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