How to format your references using the International Journal of Food Contamination citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for International Journal of Food Contamination. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Bonetta L. Gene expression: an expression of interest. Nature. 2006 Apr 27;440(7088):1233–7.
A journal article with 2 authors
Sung S, Amasino RM. Vernalization in Arabidopsis thaliana is mediated by the PHD finger protein VIN3. Nature. 2004 Jan 8;427(6970):159–64.
A journal article with 3 authors
Raty J-Y, Schwegler E, Bonev SA. Electronic and structural transitions in dense liquid sodium. Nature. 2007 Sep 27;449(7161):448–51.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
Marois C, Macintosh B, Barman T, Zuckerman B, Song I, Patience J, et al. Direct imaging of multiple planets orbiting the star HR 8799. Science. 2008 Nov 28;322(5906):1348–52.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Fleckenstein P, Tranum-Jensen J, Myschetzky PS. Anatomy in Diagnostic Imaging. Oxford, UK: John Wiley & Sons, Ltd; 2014.
An edited book
Neamtu M, Schumaker L, editors. Approximation Theory XIII: San Antonio 2010. New York, NY: Springer; 2012.
A chapter in an edited book
Chiarugi F, Colantonio S, Emmanouilidou D, Moroni D, Salvetti O. Biomedical Signal and Image Processing for Decision Support in Heart Failure. In: Perner P, Salvetti O, editors. Advances in Mass Data Analysis of Images and Signals in Medicine, Biotechnology, Chemistry and Food Industry: Third International Conference, MDA 2008 Leipzig, Germany, July 14, 2008 Proceedings. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer; 2008. p. 38–51.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for International Journal of Food Contamination.

Blog post
Davis J. Single Gene Variant Makes Male Worms More Attractive To Other Males [Internet]. IFLScience. IFLScience; 2015 [cited 2018 Oct 30]. Available from:


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. Smartphone Data: Information and Issues Regarding Surreptitious Tracking Apps That Can Facilitate Stalking. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office; 2016 Apr. Report No.: GAO-16-317.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Belknap BM. Fostering Resilience in Beginning Special Education Teachers [Doctoral dissertation]. [Washington, DC]: George Washington University; 2012.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Hollander S. First Prize Is a Chance to Climb Everest. New York Times. 2003 Jan 20;D10.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Bonetta 2006).
This sentence cites two references (Bonetta 2006; Sung and Amasino 2004).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Sung and Amasino 2004)
  • Three or more authors: (Marois et al. 2008)

About the journal

Full journal titleInternational Journal of Food Contamination
AbbreviationInt. J. Food Contam.
ISSN (online)2196-2804

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