How to format your references using the International Journal of Food Contamination citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for International Journal of Food Contamination. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Patek SN. Spiny lobsters stick and slip to make sound. Nature. 2001 May 10;411(6834):153–4.
A journal article with 2 authors
Enyeart PJ, Ellington AD. Synthetic biology: a yeast for all reasons. Nature. 2011 Sep 21;477(7365):413–4.
A journal article with 3 authors
Buck WR, Lavier LL, Poliakov ANB. Modes of faulting at mid-ocean ridges. Nature. 2005 Apr 7;434(7034):719–23.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
Lee K-H, Lo H-L, Tang W-C, Hsiao HH-Y, Yang P-M. A gene expression signature-based approach reveals the mechanisms of action of the Chinese herbal medicine berberine. Sci. Rep. 2014 Sep 17;4:6394.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Ruckmongathan TN. Addressing Techniques of Liquid Crystal Displays. Chichester, UK: John Wiley & Sons, Ltd; 2014.
An edited book
Jardim Nunes N, Selic B, Rodrigues da Silva A, Toval Alvarez A, editors. UML Modeling Languages and Applications: > 2004 Satellite Activities, Lisbon, Portugal, October 11-15, 2004, Revised Selected Papers. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer; 2005.
A chapter in an edited book
Li W, Henein M, Gatzoulis MA. Tricuspid Valve Abnormalities. In: Henein M, Gatzoulis MA, editors. Echocardiography in Adult Congenital Heart Disease. London: Springer; 2007. p. 65–71.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for International Journal of Food Contamination.

Blog post
Andrew E. U.S. And China Join Forces To Build A Bullet Train Between LA And Las Vegas. IFLScience. IFLScience; 2015.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. Rail Transit: FTA Programs Are Helping Address Transit Agencies’ Safety Challenges, but Improved Performance Goals and Measures Could Better Focus Efforts. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office; 2011 Jan. Report No.: GAO-11-199.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Thom RR. Beyond the numbers: A phenomenological study of intangible assets for small manufacturing business valuation [Doctoral dissertation]. [Phoenix, AZ]: University of Phoenix; 2008.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Burghardt LF. Climbing the Walls Beats Cabin Fever. New York Times. 2005 Nov 20;14LI16.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Patek 2001).
This sentence cites two references (Enyeart and Ellington 2011; Patek 2001).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Enyeart and Ellington 2011)
  • Three or more authors: (Lee et al. 2014)

About the journal

Full journal titleInternational Journal of Food Contamination
AbbreviationInt. J. Food Contam.
ISSN (online)2196-2804

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