How to format your references using the International Journal of Food Contamination citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for International Journal of Food Contamination. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Hoag H. Testing new ground. Nature. 2004 Jun 10;429(6992):682–3.
A journal article with 2 authors
Bodner S, Paine C. When peer review fails. Nature. 2000 Sep 14;407(6801):129–30.
A journal article with 3 authors
Gillis AJ, Schuller AP, Skordalakes E. Structure of the Tribolium castaneum telomerase catalytic subunit TERT. Nature. 2008 Oct 2;455(7213):633–7.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
Öztürk B, de Jaeger L, Smidt H, Sipkema D. Culture-dependent and independent approaches for identifying novel halogenases encoded by Crambe crambe (marine sponge) microbiota. Sci. Rep. 2013 Sep 27;3:2780.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Passarelli D. Trading Options Greeks. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.; 2012.
An edited book
Hulst R, Montfort A van, editors. Inter-Municipal Cooperation in Europe. Dordrecht: Springer Netherlands; 2007.
A chapter in an edited book
Fu G, Xu X. Mechanistic Insights into Selective Oxidation of Light Alkanes by Transition Metal Compounds/Complexes. In: Wiest O, Wu Y, editors. Computational Organometallic Chemistry. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer; 2012. p. 113–41.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for International Journal of Food Contamination.

Blog post
Andrew E. Development And The Reef: The Rules Have Been Lax For Too Long [Internet]. IFLScience. IFLScience; 2015 [cited 2018 Oct 30]. Available from:


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. Space Surveillance Network: Appropriate Controls Needed Over Data Access. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office; 2002 Apr. Report No.: GAO-02-402RNI.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Rodriguez F. Grant proposal: Providing effective screening, training, and supervision for an at-risk youth mentoring program [Doctoral dissertation]. [Long Beach, CA]: California State University, Long Beach; 2010.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Hollander S. Imagining a Place Where Cheers Never End. New York Times. 2008 Aug 10;CY6.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Hoag 2004).
This sentence cites two references (Bodner and Paine 2000; Hoag 2004).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Bodner and Paine 2000)
  • Three or more authors: (Öztürk et al. 2013)

About the journal

Full journal titleInternational Journal of Food Contamination
AbbreviationInt. J. Food Contam.
ISSN (online)2196-2804

Other styles