How to format your references using the International Journal of Food Contamination citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for International Journal of Food Contamination. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Shaw JE. Alejandro Zaffaroni (1923-2014). Nature. 2014 Apr 10;508(7495):187.
A journal article with 2 authors
Taira T, Hatoyama Y. Nuclear energy: Nationalize the Fukushima Daiichi atomic plant. Nature. 2011 Dec 14;480(7377):313–4.
A journal article with 3 authors
Liu Q-S, Pu L, Poo M-M. Repeated cocaine exposure in vivo facilitates LTP induction in midbrain dopamine neurons. Nature. 2005 Oct 13;437(7061):1027–31.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
Perfit MR, Cann JR, Fornari DJ, Engels J, Smith DK, Ridley WI, et al. Interaction of sea water and lava during submarine eruptions at mid-ocean ridges. Nature. 2003 Nov 6;426(6962):62–5.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Jamison DC. Perl Programming for Biologists. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.; 2005.
An edited book
Iijima S, Nishijima K-I, editors. Animal Cell Technology: Basic & Applied Aspects. Dordrecht: Springer Netherlands; 2006.
A chapter in an edited book
Subramanian B. Engineering Education in India: A Comprehensive Overview. In: Christensen SH, Didier C, Jamison A, Meganck M, Mitcham C, Newberry B, editors. International Perspectives on Engineering Education: Engineering Education and Practice in Context, Volume 1. Cham: Springer International Publishing; 2015. p. 105–23.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for International Journal of Food Contamination.

Blog post
Davis J. Scientists Break Gene-Editing Record To Create Animal Organs For Human Transplantation [Internet]. IFLScience. IFLScience; 2015 [cited 2018 Oct 30]. Available from:


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. Students With Disabilities: More Information and Guidance Could Improve Opportunities in Physical Education and Athletics. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office; 2010 Jun. Report No.: GAO-10-519.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Di Giacomo FA. Education amidst transition: The case of Romania [Doctoral dissertation]. [College Park, MD]: University of Maryland, College Park; 2010.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Poniewozik J. TV’s United States of ‘Sieg Heil.’ New York Times. 2016 Dec 15;C1.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Shaw 2014).
This sentence cites two references (Shaw 2014; Taira and Hatoyama 2011).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Taira and Hatoyama 2011)
  • Three or more authors: (Perfit et al. 2003)

About the journal

Full journal titleInternational Journal of Food Contamination
AbbreviationInt. J. Food Contam.
ISSN (online)2196-2804

Other styles