How to format your references using the Frontiers in Immunological Memory citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Frontiers in Immunological Memory. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
May, M. (2014). Drug development: Time for teamwork. Nature 509, S4-5.
A journal article with 2 authors
Rowland, J. M., and Emlen, D. J. (2009). Two thresholds, three male forms result in facultative male trimorphism in beetles. Science 323, 773–776.
A journal article with 3 authors
Hare, T. A., Camerer, C. F., and Rangel, A. (2009). Self-control in decision-making involves modulation of the vmPFC valuation system. Science 324, 646–648.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
Roche, J., Carrara, S., Sanchez, J., Lannelongue, J., Loget, G., Bouffier, L., et al. (2014). Wireless powering of e-swimmers. Sci. Rep. 4, 6705.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Kompare, D. (2010). CSI. Oxford, UK: Wiley-Blackwell.
An edited book
Spaccapietra, S. ed. (2006). Journal on Data Semantics VII. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer.
A chapter in an edited book
Hutt, A. (2010). “Finite Propagation Speeds in Spatially Extended Systems,” in Complex Time-Delay Systems: Theory and Applications Understanding Complex Systems., ed. F. M. Atay (Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer), 151–176.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Frontiers in Immunological Memory.

Blog post
Andrews, R. (2016). First “Baby Dragon” Hatches Inside Ancient Slovenian Cave. IFLScience. Available at: [Accessed October 30, 2018].


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office (2015). Washington Metropolitan Area Transit Authority: Steps Taken to Address Financial Management and Safety Recommendations, but Financial Management Internal Controls Need Strengthening. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Reid, L. N. (2012). The Unintended Consequences of Narrowing Secondary Curriculum in Response to Low Standardized Test Scores.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Murphy, M. J. O. (2016). For St. Patrick’s Day Parade 1855, Snow on the Clover. New York Times, C26.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (May, 2014).
This sentence cites two references (Rowland and Emlen, 2009; May, 2014).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Rowland and Emlen, 2009)
  • Three or more authors: (Roche et al., 2014)

About the journal

Full journal titleFrontiers in Immunological Memory
AbbreviationFront. Immunol.
ISSN (online)1664-3224

Other styles