How to format your references using the Frontiers in Immunological Memory citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Frontiers in Immunological Memory. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Powell, K. (2004). Age is no barrier. Nature 432, 40–42.
A journal article with 2 authors
Brucker, R. M., and Bordenstein, S. R. (2013). The hologenomic basis of speciation: gut bacteria cause hybrid lethality in the genus Nasonia. Science 341, 667–669.
A journal article with 3 authors
Srinivasan, G., James, C. M., and Krzycki, J. A. (2002). Pyrrolysine encoded by UAG in Archaea: charging of a UAG-decoding specialized tRNA. Science 296, 1459–1462.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
Bessell, P. R., Auty, H. K., Searle, K. R., Handel, I. G., Purse, B. V., and de C Bronsvoort, B. M. (2014). Impact of temperature, feeding preference and vaccination on Schmallenberg virus transmission in Scotland. Sci. Rep. 4, 5746.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Bernatz, R. A. (2010). Fourier Series and Numerical Methods for Partial Differential Equations. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
An edited book
Ray, I., and Shenoi, S. eds. (2008). Advances in Digital Forensics IV. Boston, MA: Springer US.
A chapter in an edited book
Kirkwood, C. (2012). “Some Notes on Dialogue,” in The Persons in Relation Perspective: In Counselling, Psychotherapy and Community Adult Learning, ed. C. Kirkwood (Rotterdam: SensePublishers), 49–55.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Frontiers in Immunological Memory.

Blog post
Andrew, E. (2013). Computer Program Reconstructed Dinosaur Locomotion. IFLScience. Available at: [Accessed October 30, 2018].


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office (1995). Telecommunications: Competition in the Mobile Communications Industry. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Koenig, W. E. (2010). Leadership for the whole in the mythic field of C. G. Jung’s unconscious processes.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Kelly, M. (1992). THE 1992 CAMPAIGN: Behind the Scenes; Though Advisers Differ, Clinton’s in Tune With All. New York Times, 11.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Powell, 2004).
This sentence cites two references (Powell, 2004; Brucker and Bordenstein, 2013).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Brucker and Bordenstein, 2013)
  • Three or more authors: (Bessell et al., 2014)

About the journal

Full journal titleFrontiers in Immunological Memory
AbbreviationFront. Immunol.
ISSN (online)1664-3224

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