How to format your references using the Frontiers in Immunological Memory citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Frontiers in Immunological Memory. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Anson, L. (2009). Membrane protein biophysics. Nature 459, 343.
A journal article with 2 authors
Slee, E. A., and Lu, X. (2013). Requirement for phosphorylation of P53 at Ser312 in suppression of chemical carcinogenesis. Sci. Rep. 3, 3105.
A journal article with 3 authors
Mitchell, K. J., Cooper, A., and Phillips, M. J. (2015). Comment on “Whole-genome analyses resolve early branches in the tree of life of modern birds.” Science 349, 1460.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
Smedskjaer, M. M., Youngman, R. E., Striepe, S., Potuzak, M., Bauer, U., Deubener, J., et al. (2014). Irreversibility of pressure induced boron speciation change in glass. Sci. Rep. 4, 3770.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Vaccari, D. A., Strom, P. F., and Alleman, J. E. (2005). Environmental Biology for Engineers and Scientists. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
An edited book
Guthoff, R. F., and Katowitz, J. A. eds. (2010). Oculoplastics and Orbit: Aesthetic and Functional Oculofacial Plastic Problem-Solving in the 21st Century. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer.
A chapter in an edited book
Kim, D.-W., Agrawal, G. K., Rakwal, R., Ahmed, S., and Rohila, J. S. (2014). “Genomic Methods for Improving Abiotic Stress Tolerance in Crops,” in Plant Biotechnology: Experience and Future Prospects, eds. A. Ricroch, S. Chopra, and S. J. Fleischer (Cham: Springer International Publishing), 35–42.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Frontiers in Immunological Memory.

Blog post
Andrew, E. (2015). Hubble Snaps Stunning Image Of An Exploded Star. IFLScience. Available at: [Accessed October 30, 2018].


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office (1977). National Aeronautics and Space Administration Should Provide the Congress with More Information on the Pioneer Venus Project. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Kelleher, A. (2017). Gendered Intent to Turnover Resulting from Workplace Bullying in Nursing and Medical Fields.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Anson, 2009).
This sentence cites two references (Anson, 2009; Slee and Lu, 2013).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Slee and Lu, 2013)
  • Three or more authors: (Smedskjaer et al., 2014)

About the journal

Full journal titleFrontiers in Immunological Memory
AbbreviationFront. Immunol.
ISSN (online)1664-3224

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