How to format your references using the Frontiers in Immunological Memory citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Frontiers in Immunological Memory. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Smaglik, P. (2003). Cracking the combination. Nature 423, 463.
A journal article with 2 authors
Buluta, I., and Nori, F. (2009). Quantum simulators. Science 326, 108–111.
A journal article with 3 authors
Giovannoni, S., Temperton, B., and Zhao, Y. (2013). Giovannoni et al. reply. Nature 499, E4-5.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
Tanaka, H., Homma, K., Iwane, A. H., Katayama, E., Ikebe, R., Saito, J., et al. (2002). The motor domain determines the large step of myosin-V. Nature 415, 192–195.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Abdullaeva, Z. (2017). Nano- and Biomaterials. Weinheim, Germany: Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA.
An edited book
Ausiello, G., and Petreschi, R. eds. (2013). The Power of Algorithms: Inspiration and Examples in Everyday Life. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer.
A chapter in an edited book
Li, Y., Corder, E. H., and Corder, L. S. (2006). “Disability Patterns for Us Elderly Nursing Home Residents Over Two Decades: Findings from the 1973 to 1997 National Nursing Home Surveys,” in Longer Life and Healthy Aging International Studies in Population., eds. Z. Yi, E. M. Crimmins, Y. Carrière, and J.-M. Robine (Dordrecht: Springer Netherlands), 35–47.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Frontiers in Immunological Memory.

Blog post
Andrew, E. (2014). Cartwheeling Spider Discovered. IFLScience.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office (1986). University Finances: Research Revenues and Expenditures. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Duffy, B. (2012). Analytical Methods and Perturbation Theory for the Elliptic Restricted Three-Body Problem of Astrodynamics.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Vecsey, G. (2011). Pujols Won’t Find Unconditional Love Anywhere Else. New York Times, B17.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Smaglik, 2003).
This sentence cites two references (Smaglik, 2003; Buluta and Nori, 2009).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Buluta and Nori, 2009)
  • Three or more authors: (Tanaka et al., 2002)

About the journal

Full journal titleFrontiers in Immunological Memory
AbbreviationFront. Immunol.
ISSN (online)1664-3224

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