How to format your references using the The Library citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for The Library. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Basko, Denis, ‘Applied Physics. A Photothermoelectric Effect in Graphene’, Science (New York, N.Y.), 334 (2011), 610–11
A journal article with 2 authors
Demaine, Linda J., and Aaron X. Fellmeth, ‘Patent Law. Natural Substances and Patentable Inventions’, Science (New York, N.Y.), 300 (2003), 1375–76
A journal article with 3 authors
Chklovskii, D. B., B. W. Mel, and K. Svoboda, ‘Cortical Rewiring and Information Storage’, Nature, 431 (2004), 782–88
A journal article with 7 or more authors
Du, Chao, Peng Wang, Yanbo Yu, Feixue Chen, Jun Liu, and Yanqing Li, ‘Gadolinium Chloride Improves the Course of TNBS and DSS-Induced Colitis through Protecting against Colonic Mucosal Inflammation’, Scientific Reports, 4 (2014), 6096

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
El-Haik, Basem Said, Axiomatic Quality (Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc., 2005)
An edited book
Bellucci, Stefano, ed., Supersymmetric Mechanics – Vol. 1: Supersymmetry, Noncommutativity and Matrix Models, Lecture Notes in Physics (Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer, 2006), dcxcviii
A chapter in an edited book
Ndayikengurukiye, Didier, and Max Mignotte, ‘High-Frequency Spectral Energy Map Estimation Based Gait Analysis System Using a Depth Camera for Pathology Detection’, in Image Analysis and Recognition: 13th International Conference, ICIAR 2016, in Memory of Mohamed Kamel, Póvoa de Varzim, Portugal, July 13-15, 2016, Proceedings, ed. by Aurélio Campilho and Fakhri Karray, Lecture Notes in Computer Science (Cham: Springer International Publishing, 2016), pp. 38–45

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for The Library.

Blog post
Davis, Josh, ‘Elephants Born To Stressed Mothers Age Faster’, IFLScience (IFLScience, 2015) <https://www.iflscience.com/plants-and-animals/elephants-born-stressed-mothers-age-faster/&#62; [accessed 30 October 2018]

Reports

This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office, Social Security Administration Field Offices: Reduced Workforce Faces Challenges as Baby Boomers Retire (Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office, 8 May 2008)

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Zimmerman, Timothy F., ‘A Descriptive Review of the Development and Implementation of a Funding Model for the Kentucky Community and Technical College System: The First 10 Years, 1998–2008’ (unpublished Doctoral dissertation, Mississippi State University, 2010)

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Vecsey, George, ‘In the End, Conduct Is What Counts’, New York Times, 18 March 2010, p. B13

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference Denis Basko, ‘Applied Physics. A Photothermoelectric Effect in Graphene’, Science (New York, N.Y.), 334.6056 (2011), 610–11 <https://doi.org/10.1126/science.1214560>..
This sentence cites two references Denis Basko, ‘Applied Physics. A Photothermoelectric Effect in Graphene’, Science (New York, N.Y.), 334.6056 (2011), 610–11 <https://doi.org/10.1126/science.1214560>; Linda J. Demaine and Aaron X. Fellmeth, ‘Patent Law. Natural Substances and Patentable Inventions’, Science (New York, N.Y.), 300.5624 (2003), 1375–76 <https://doi.org/10.1126/science.1083367>..

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: Linda J. Demaine and Aaron X. Fellmeth, ‘Patent Law. Natural Substances and Patentable Inventions’, Science (New York, N.Y.), 300.5624 (2003), 1375–76.
  • Three authors: D. B. Chklovskii, B. W. Mel, and K. Svoboda, ‘Cortical Rewiring and Information Storage’, Nature, 431.7010 (2004), 782–88.
  • 4 or more authors: Chao Du and others, ‘Gadolinium Chloride Improves the Course of TNBS and DSS-Induced Colitis through Protecting against Colonic Mucosal Inflammation’, Scientific Reports, 4 (2014), 6096 <https://doi.org/10.1038/srep06096>.

About the journal

Full journal titleThe Library
AbbreviationLibrary (Lond.)
ISSN (print)0024-2160
ISSN (online)1744-8581
ScopeArts and Humanities (miscellaneous)
Library and Information Sciences

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