How to format your references using the The Library citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for The Library. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Thomas, John Meurig, ‘Centenary: The Birth of X-Ray Crystallography’, Nature, 491.7423 (2012), 186–87
A journal article with 2 authors
Hirschberg, Julia, and Christopher D. Manning, ‘Advances in Natural Language Processing’, Science (New York, N.Y.), 349.6245 (2015), 261–66
A journal article with 3 authors
Guiteras, Raymond, James Levinsohn, and Ahmed Mushfiq Mobarak, ‘Sanitation Subsidies. Encouraging Sanitation Investment in the Developing World: A Cluster-Randomized Trial’, Science (New York, N.Y.), 348.6237 (2015), 903–6
A journal article with 7 or more authors
Chatterjee, Malini, Julie Osborne, Giovanna Bestetti, Yuan Chang, and Patrick S. Moore, ‘Viral IL-6-Induced Cell Proliferation and Immune Evasion of Interferon Activity’, Science (New York, N.Y.), 298.5597 (2002), 1432–35

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Cronin, Richard, Reading Victorian Poetry (Chichester, UK: John Wiley & Sons, Ltd, 2012)
An edited book
Lenger, Alexander, and Florian Schumacher, eds., Understanding the Dynamics of Global Inequality: Social Exclusion, Power Shift, and Structural Changes (Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer, 2015)
A chapter in an edited book
Pawlak, Mirosław, ‘Investigating Language Learning Motivation from an Ideal Language-Self Perspective: The Case of English Majors in Poland’, in Researching Second Language Learning and Teaching from a Psycholinguistic Perspective: Studies in Honour of Danuta Gabryś-Barker, ed. by Dagmara Gałajda, Paweł Zakrajewski, and Mirosław Pawlak, Second Language Learning and Teaching (Cham: Springer International Publishing, 2016), pp. 53–69

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for The Library.

Blog post
Andrew, Elise, ‘Life Onboard the ISS May Be Revolutionized By 3D Printing’, IFLScience (IFLScience, 2013)

Reports

This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office, Highway Safety: Causes of Injury in Automobile Crashes (Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office, 9 May 1995)

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Tseng, Yen Hua-Hui, ‘Motivation of Participation in Inservice Training Based on Problem Solving: A Modified Delphi Study’ (unpublished Doctoral dissertation, University of Phoenix, 2008)

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Kelly, Kate, and Alan Rappeport, ‘Goldman Sachs Veteran Withdraws From Nomination to Treasury’, New York Times, 19 May 2017, p. B6

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference John Meurig Thomas, ‘Centenary: The Birth of X-Ray Crystallography’, Nature, 491.7423 (2012), 186–87 <https://doi.org/10.1038/491186a>..
This sentence cites two references John Meurig Thomas, ‘Centenary: The Birth of X-Ray Crystallography’, Nature, 491.7423 (2012), 186–87 <https://doi.org/10.1038/491186a>; Julia Hirschberg and Christopher D. Manning, ‘Advances in Natural Language Processing’, Science (New York, N.Y.), 349.6245 (2015), 261–66 <https://doi.org/10.1126/science.aaa8685>..

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors:
  • Three authors:
  • 4 or more authors: Malini Chatterjee and others, ‘Viral IL-6-Induced Cell Proliferation and Immune Evasion of Interferon Activity’, Science (New York, N.Y.), 298.5597 (2002), 1432–35.

About the journal

Full journal titleThe Library
AbbreviationLibrary (Lond.)
ISSN (print)0024-2160
ISSN (online)1744-8581
ScopeArts and Humanities (miscellaneous)
Library and Information Sciences

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