How to format your references using the The Library citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for The Library. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Shoichet, Brian K., ‘Virtual Screening of Chemical Libraries’, Nature, 432.7019 (2004), 862–65
A journal article with 2 authors
Visscher, Marty, and Teresa Taylor, ‘Pressure Ulcers in the Hospitalized Neonate: Rates and Risk Factors’, Scientific Reports, 4 (2014), 7429
A journal article with 3 authors
Pauly, Daniel, Ray Hilborn, and Trevor A. Branch, ‘Fisheries: Does Catch Reflect Abundance?’, Nature, 494.7437 (2013), 303–6
A journal article with 7 or more authors
Diskin, Ron, Johannes F. Scheid, Paola M. Marcovecchio, Anthony P. West Jr, Florian Klein, Han Gao, and others, ‘Increasing the Potency and Breadth of an HIV Antibody by Using Structure-Based Rational Design’, Science (New York, N.Y.), 334.6060 (2011), 1289–93

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Shinohara, Hisanori, and Nikos Tagmatarchis, Endohedral Metallofullerenes (Chichester, UK: John Wiley & Sons, Ltd, 2015)
An edited book
Kessel, David, and Charles Ray, eds., Transcatheter Embolization and Therapy, Techniques in Interventional Radiology (London: Springer, 2009)
A chapter in an edited book
Högselius, Per, Arne Kaijser, and Erik van der Vleuten, ‘Factory & Finance’, in Europe’s Infrastructure Transition: Economy, War, Nature, ed. by Arne Kaijser and Erik van der Vleuten (London: Palgrave Macmillan UK, 2015), pp. 141–82

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for The Library.

Blog post
Davis, Josh, ‘Why Are Some People Left-Handed?’, IFLScience (IFLScience, 2015)


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office, Mass Transit: Needs Projections Could Better Reflect Future Costs (Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office, 9 March 1993)

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Lieberman, Viridiana, ‘One Yard Shy of Empowerment: Cinematic Portrayals of Female Athletes’ (unpublished Doctoral dissertation, Florida Atlantic University, 2012)

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Robinson, Linda, ‘The Little Battles We Must Win’, New York Times, 23 November 2008, p. WK9

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text

About the journal

Full journal titleThe Library
AbbreviationLibrary (Lond.)
ISSN (print)0024-2160
ISSN (online)1744-8581
ScopeArts and Humanities (miscellaneous)
Library and Information Sciences

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