How to format your references using the The Library citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for The Library. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
King, David A., ‘Environment. Climate Change Science: Adapt, Mitigate, or Ignore?’, Science (New York, N.Y.), 303.5655 (2004), 176–77
A journal article with 2 authors
Meldrum, Deirdre R., and Mark R. Holl, ‘Tech.Sight. Microfluidics. Microscale Bioanalytical Systems’, Science (New York, N.Y.), 297.5584 (2002), 1197–98
A journal article with 3 authors
Gupta, Rajeev, Zengyong He, and Sheng Luan, ‘Functional Relationship of Cytochrome c(6) and Plastocyanin in Arabidopsis’, Nature, 417.6888 (2002), 567–71
A journal article with 7 or more authors
Gong, Boyi, Xiaopeng Zhao, Zhenzhen Pan, Sa Li, Xiaonong Wang, Yan Zhao, and others, ‘A Visible Metamaterial Fabricated by Self-Assembly Method’, Scientific Reports, 4 (2014), 4713

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Hornberg, Alexander, Handbook of Machine and Computer Vision (Weinheim, Germany: Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, 2017)
An edited book
Motahari-Nezhad, Hamid Reza, Jan Recker, and Matthias Weidlich, eds., Business Process Management: 13th International Conference, BPM 2015, Innsbruck, Austria, August 31 -- September 3, 2015, Proceedings, Lecture Notes in Computer Science, 1st ed. 2015 (Cham: Springer International Publishing, 2015),
A chapter in an edited book
Storch, Harry, Nigel K. Downes, Michael Schmidt, Thi Cam Van Nguyen, Le Canh Dinh, and Bao Thanh, ‘Adaptation: Integrative Planning Framework for Adapted Land-Use Planning’, in Sustainable Ho Chi Minh City: Climate Policies for Emerging Mega Cities, ed. by Antje Katzschner, Michael Waibel, Dirk Schwede, Lutz Katzschner, Michael Schmidt, and Harry Storch (Cham: Springer International Publishing, 2016), pp. 51–73

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for The Library.

Blog post
Fang, Janet, ‘Ancient Sloths Headed Back to Sea’, IFLScience (IFLScience, 2014) <https://www.iflscience.com/plants-and-animals/ancient-sloths-headed-back-sea/> [accessed 30 October 2018]

Reports

This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office, Child Care and Early Childhood Education: More Information Sharing and Program Review by HHS Could Enhance Access for Families with Limited English Proficiency (Korean Version) (Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office, 17 August 2006)

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Harrison, Adam B., ‘Knowing the Familiar’ (unpublished Doctoral dissertation, California State University, Long Beach, 2012)

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Crow, Kelly, ‘Parents Say Stable’s New Site Means Dust and Distraction for Children’, New York Times, 22 October 2000, p. 146

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference David A. King, ‘Environment. Climate Change Science: Adapt, Mitigate, or Ignore?’, Science (New York, N.Y.), 303.5655 (2004), 176–77 <https://doi.org/10.1126/science.1094329>..
This sentence cites two references David A. King, ‘Environment. Climate Change Science: Adapt, Mitigate, or Ignore?’, Science (New York, N.Y.), 303.5655 (2004), 176–77 <https://doi.org/10.1126/science.1094329>; Deirdre R. Meldrum and Mark R. Holl, ‘Tech.Sight. Microfluidics. Microscale Bioanalytical Systems’, Science (New York, N.Y.), 297.5584 (2002), 1197–98 <https://doi.org/10.1126/science.297.5584.1197>..

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: Deirdre R. Meldrum and Mark R. Holl, ‘Tech.Sight. Microfluidics. Microscale Bioanalytical Systems’, Science (New York, N.Y.), 297.5584 (2002), 1197–98.
  • Three authors: Rajeev Gupta, Zengyong He, and Sheng Luan, ‘Functional Relationship of Cytochrome c(6) and Plastocyanin in Arabidopsis’, Nature, 417.6888 (2002), 567–71.
  • 4 or more authors: Boyi Gong and others, ‘A Visible Metamaterial Fabricated by Self-Assembly Method’, Scientific Reports, 4 (2014), 4713 <https://doi.org/10.1038/srep04713>.

About the journal

Full journal titleThe Library
AbbreviationLibrary (Lond.)
ISSN (print)0024-2160
ISSN (online)1744-8581
ScopeArts and Humanities (miscellaneous)
Library and Information Sciences

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