How to format your references using the The Lancet Neurology citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for The Lancet Neurology. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Hunt G. Paleontology. Variation and early evolution. Science 2007; 317: 459–60.
A journal article with 2 authors
Santolík O, Chum J. Planetary science. The origin of plasmaspheric hiss. Science 2009; 324: 729–30.
A journal article with 3 authors
Katz RF, Spiegelman M, Holtzman B. The dynamics of melt and shear localization in partially molten aggregates. Nature 2006; 442: 676–9.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
Piewngam P, Zheng Y, Nguyen TH, et al. Pathogen elimination by probiotic Bacillus via signalling interference. Nature 2018; 562: 532–7.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Pardoux É. Markov Processes and Applications: Algorithms, Networks, Genome and Finance. Chichester, UK: John Wiley & Sons, Ltd, 2008.
An edited book
Diop S, Scheren P, Ferdinand Machiwa J, editors. Estuaries: A Lifeline of Ecosystem Services in the Western Indian Ocean. Cham: Springer International Publishing, 2016.
A chapter in an edited book
Zaidi A. Covering Faith-Based Violence: Structure and Semantics of News Reporting in Pakistan. In: Syed J, Pio E, Kamran T, Zaidi A, eds. Faith-Based Violence and Deobandi Militancy in Pakistan. London: Palgrave Macmillan UK, 2016: 93–132.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for The Lancet Neurology.

Blog post
Luntz S. Pythons And Boas Evolved In Parallel. IFLScience. 2016; published online June 15. (accessed Oct 30, 2018).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. Pipeline Safety: Better Data and Guidance Needed to Improve Pipeline Operator Incident Response. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office, 2013.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Tabares M. Comprehensive skills program for emancipated foster youth: A grant thesis project. 2015.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Grynbaum MM, Steel E. Fox News, Pledging New Culture, Ousts Another Symbol of Old One. New York Times. 2017; : A1.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in superscript:

This sentence cites one reference 1.
This sentence cites two references 1,2.
This sentence cites four references 1–4.

About the journal

Full journal titleThe Lancet Neurology
AbbreviationLancet Neurol.
ISSN (print)1474-4422
ISSN (online)1474-4465
ScopeClinical Neurology

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