How to format your references using the The Lancet Neurology citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for The Lancet Neurology. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Pines D. Science-based security under threat. Nature 2000; 407: 447–8.
A journal article with 2 authors
Siemers BM, Schnitzler H-U. Echolocation signals reflect niche differentiation in five sympatric congeneric bat species. Nature 2004; 429: 657–61.
A journal article with 3 authors
West GB, Brown JH, Enquist BJ. A general model for ontogenetic growth. Nature 2001; 413: 628–31.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
Higham T, Compton T, Stringer C, et al. The earliest evidence for anatomically modern humans in northwestern Europe. Nature 2011; 479: 521–4.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Nordenström J. The Hunt for the Parathyroids. Oxford: John Wiley & Sons, 2012.
An edited book
Fra.Paleo U, editor. Risk Governance: The Articulation of Hazard, Politics and Ecology. Dordrecht: Springer Netherlands, 2015.
A chapter in an edited book
Dulli S, Furini S, Peron E. Metodi di classificazione. In: Furini S, Peron E, eds. Data mining: Metodi e strategie. Milano: Springer, 2009: 63–94.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for The Lancet Neurology.

Blog post
Davis J. New Pathogen Discovered In Africa Causes Anthrax-Like Disease. IFLScience. 2016; published online Sept 8.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. Direct Student Loans Could Save Money and Simplify Program Administration. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office, 1991.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Lord V. Defining eating disorder recovery: A qualitative approach. 2015.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Wilson M. Agents Describe Search For Chelsea Bomb Pieces. New York Times. 2017; : A21.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in superscript:

This sentence cites one reference 1.
This sentence cites two references 1,2.
This sentence cites four references 1–4.

About the journal

Full journal titleThe Lancet Neurology
AbbreviationLancet Neurol.
ISSN (print)1474-4422
ISSN (online)1474-4465
ScopeClinical Neurology

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