How to format your references using the The Lancet Neurology citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for The Lancet Neurology. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Ivins ER. Ocean science. Ice sheet stability and sea level. Science 2009; 324: 888–9.
A journal article with 2 authors
Rappuoli R, Aderem A. A 2020 vision for vaccines against HIV, tuberculosis and malaria. Nature 2011; 473: 463–9.
A journal article with 3 authors
Saalmann YB, Pigarev IN, Vidyasagar TR. Neural mechanisms of visual attention: how top-down feedback highlights relevant locations. Science 2007; 316: 1612–5.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
Impellizzeri CMV, McKean JP, Castangia P, et al. A gravitationally lensed water maser in the early Universe. Nature 2008; 456: 927–9.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Dosil J. Eating Disorders in Athletes. Chichester, West Sussex, England: John Wiley & Sons, Ltd, 2008.
An edited book
Gutiérrez-López GF, Barbosa-Cánovas GV, Welti-Chanes J, Parada-Arias E, editors. Food Engineering: Integrated Approaches. New York, NY: Springer, 2008.
A chapter in an edited book
Biondi A, Testi AM, Gibson BES. Acute Promyelocytic Leukaemia. In: Houghton PJ, Arceci RJ, eds. Molecularly Targeted Therapy for Childhood Cancer. New York, NY: Springer, 2010: 83–108.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for The Lancet Neurology.

Blog post
Fang J. Two Spectacular New Peacock Spiders Discovered in Queensland. IFLScience. 2015; published online Feb 27.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. Restructuring of the District of Columbia Department of Public Works’ Division of Transportation. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office, 2001.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Dovale MJ. Postwar japan’s hybrid modernity of in-betweenness: Historical, literary, and social perspectives. 2013.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Poniewozik J. In Testimony, a Reboot of Classic TV Hearings Past. New York Times. 2017; : A21.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in superscript:

This sentence cites one reference 1.
This sentence cites two references 1,2.
This sentence cites four references 1–4.

About the journal

Full journal titleThe Lancet Neurology
AbbreviationLancet Neurol.
ISSN (print)1474-4422
ISSN (online)1474-4465
ScopeClinical Neurology

Other styles