How to format your references using the Annals of Intensive Care citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Annals of Intensive Care. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
1. Young KD. Microbiology. A flipping cell wall ferry. Science. 2014;345:139–40.
A journal article with 2 authors
1. Mumford D, Tate J. Alexander Grothendieck (1928-2014). Nature. 2015;517:272.
A journal article with 3 authors
1. Moses MJ, Fettinger JC, Eichhorn BW. Interpenetrating As20 fullerene and Ni12 icosahedra in the onion-skin [As@Ni12@As20]3- ion. Science. 2003;300:778–80.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
1. Maret S, Franken P, Dauvilliers Y, Ghyselinck NB, Chambon P, Tafti M. Retinoic acid signaling affects cortical synchrony during sleep. Science. 2005;310:111–3.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
1. ASAE. 7 Measures of Success. Washington, DC: ASAE: The Center for Association Leadership; 2013.
An edited book
1. Pardo TAS, Branco A, Klautau A, Vieira R, Lima VLS de, editors. Computational Processing of the Portuguese Language: 9th International Conference, PROPOR 2010, Porto Alegre, RS, Brazil, April 27-30, 2010. Proceedings. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer; 2010.
A chapter in an edited book
1. Hung W. Problem-Based Learning: Conception, Practice, and Future. In: Cho YH, Caleon IS, Kapur M, editors. Authentic Problem Solving and Learning in the 21st Century: Perspectives from Singapore and Beyond. Singapore: Springer; 2015. p. 75–92.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Annals of Intensive Care.

Blog post
1. Hamilton K. Jet Stream Propels Commercial Plane Across Atlantic In Record Time [Internet]. IFLScience. IFLScience; 2015 [cited 2018 Oct 30]. Available from:


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
1. Government Accountability Office. Quality Management: Scoping Study. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office; 1990 Dec. Report No.: ACG/OPS-91-1.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
1. Miller C. Assembly and analysis of an Sp185/333 gene cluster from the purple sea urchin: Putative evidence for microsatellite-mediated gene and segmental duplication [Doctoral dissertation]. [Washington, DC]: George Washington University; 2010.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
1. Schulman M, White A. At Camp John Waters, a Band of ‘Filthy Freaks.’ New York Times. 2017 Oct 14;ST1.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleAnnals of Intensive Care
AbbreviationAnn. Intensive Care
ISSN (online)2110-5820
ScopeCritical Care and Intensive Care Medicine

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