How to format your references using the Audiology and Neurotology citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Audiology and Neurotology. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Hayashi S: Biophysics. Silencing neurons with light. Science 2014;344:369–370.
A journal article with 2 authors
Zhang S, Bryant DA: The tricarboxylic acid cycle in cyanobacteria. Science 2011;334:1551–1553.
A journal article with 3 authors
Larsen RE, Glover WJ, Schwartz BJ: Does the hydrated electron occupy a cavity? Science 2010;329:65–69.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
Stokroos I, Litinetsky L, van der Want JJ, Ishay JS: Magnetic minerals. Keystone-like crystals in cells of hornet combs. Nature 2001;411:654.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Hanzo L, Liew TH, Yeap BL: Turbo Coding, Turbo Equalisation and Space-Time Coding, Chichester, UK, John Wiley & Sons, Ltd, 2005.
An edited book
Schofield N, Caballero G, editors: The Political Economy of Governance: Institutions, Political Performance and Elections, Cham, Springer International Publishing, 2015.
A chapter in an edited book
Böhm C, Hofer M: Error Correction Codes; in Hofer M (ed): Physical Unclonable Functions in Theory and Practice. New York, NY, Springer, 2013, pp 87–102.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Audiology and Neurotology.

Blog post
Fang J: The Gut Microbe That Protects Against Peanut Allergies [Internet]. IFLScience 2014 [cited 2018 Oct 30];Available from:


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office: Medicaid Managed Care: Serving the Disabled Challenges State Programs, Washington, DC, U.S. Government Printing Office, 1996.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Rutherford BA: Beneficial Tensile Mean Strain Effects on the Fatigue Behavior of Superelastic NiTi 2017;

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Feeney K: Sophisticated Takeout. New York Times 2008;NJ16.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text

About the journal

Full journal titleAudiology and Neurotology
AbbreviationAudiol. Neurootol.
ISSN (print)1420-3030
ISSN (online)1421-9700
Sensory Systems
Speech and Hearing

Other styles