How to format your references using the The Knee citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for The Knee. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
[1]
Bromirski PD. Geophysics. Earth vibrations. Science 2009;324:1026–7.
A journal article with 2 authors
[1]
Podsiadlowski P, Justham S. Astronomy. Big bang points to stellar mix-up. Science 2006;314:1551–2.
A journal article with 3 authors
[1]
Hibbett DS, Gilbert LB, Donoghue MJ. Evolutionary instability of ectomycorrhizal symbioses in basidiomycetes. Nature 2000;407:506–8.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
[1]
Khalifah P, Nelson KD, Jin R, Mao ZQ, Liu Y, Huang Q, et al. Non-Fermi-liquid behaviour in La4Ru6O19. Nature 2001;411:669–71.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
[1]
Bauldry WC. Introduction to Real Analysis. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.; 2009.
An edited book
[1]
Montavon G, Orr GB, Müller K-R, editors. Neural Networks: Tricks of the Trade: Second Edition. vol. 7700. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer; 2012.
A chapter in an edited book
[1]
Braghieri A, Pacelli C, Bragaglio A, Sabia E, Napolitano F. The Hidden Costs of Livestock Environmental Sustainability: The Case of Podolian Cattle. In: Vastola A, editor. The Sustainability of Agro-Food and Natural Resource Systems in the Mediterranean Basin, Cham: Springer International Publishing; 2015, p. 47–56.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for The Knee.

Blog post
[1]
Andrew E. NASA’s HiRISE Camera Shows The Frosty Valleys Of Mars. IFLScience 2015.

Reports

This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
[1]
Government Accountability Office. Consumers’ Location Data: Companies Take Steps to Protect Privacy, but Practices Are Inconsistent, and Risks May Not be Clear to Consumers. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office; 2014.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
[1]
Ratzlaff K. Dynamics of chytrid fungus (Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis) infection in amphibians in the Rincon Mountains and Tucson, Arizona. Doctoral dissertation. University of Arizona, 2012.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
[1]
Branch J. A Coming-Home Party 40 Years in the Making. New York Times 2015:SP8.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleThe Knee
AbbreviationKnee
ISSN (print)0968-0160
ScopeOrthopedics and Sports Medicine

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