How to format your references using the The Knee citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for The Knee. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
[1]
Marx V. Cancer: A most exceptional response. Nature 2015;520:389–93.
A journal article with 2 authors
[1]
Pons AJ, Karma A. Helical crack-front instability in mixed-mode fracture. Nature 2010;464:85–9.
A journal article with 3 authors
[1]
Cai L, Friedman N, Xie XS. Stochastic protein expression in individual cells at the single molecule level. Nature 2006;440:358–62.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
[1]
Hlawacek G, Puschnig P, Frank P, Winkler A, Ambrosch-Draxl C, Teichert C. Characterization of step-edge barriers in organic thin-film growth. Science 2008;321:108–11.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
[1]
D’Amico G, Di Biase G, Janssen J, Manca R. Semi-Markov Migration Models for Credit Risk. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.; 2017.
An edited book
[1]
Stober I. Geothermal Energy: From Theoretical Models to Exploration and Development. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer; 2013.
A chapter in an edited book
[1]
Winkler A, Virnau P, Binder K. Spinodal Decomposition Kinetics of Colloid-Polymer Mixtures Including Hydrodynamic Interactions. In: Nagel WE, Kröner DH, Resch MM, editors. High Performance Computing in Science and Engineering ‘12: Transactions of the High Performance Computing Center, Stuttgart (HLRS) 2012, Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer; 2013, p. 29–38.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for The Knee.

Blog post
[1]
Davis J. Remains Of Soft Tissue May Have Been Found Inside A 195-Million-Year-Old Dinosaur Rib. IFLScience 2017. https://www.iflscience.com/plants-and-animals/remains-of-soft-tissue-may-have-been-found-inside-a-195millionyearold-dinosaur-rib/ (accessed October 30, 2018).

Reports

This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
[1]
Government Accountability Office. Year 2000 Computing Crisis: Progress Made at Department of Labor, But Key Systems at Risk. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office; 1998.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
[1]
Harvey T. The Box. Doctoral dissertation. Southern Illinois University, 2014.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
[1]
Vecsey G. A Gifted Talker Is Speaking Out. New York Times 2010:SP2.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleThe Knee
AbbreviationKnee
ISSN (print)0968-0160
ScopeOrthopedics and Sports Medicine

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