How to format your references using the The Knee citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for The Knee. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Storb R. Edward Donnall Thomas (1920-2012). Nature 2012;491:334.
A journal article with 2 authors
Gorlach S, Slabicki M. Scientists and societies. The Polish biotech gap. Nature 2004;427:870.
A journal article with 3 authors
Serizawa T, Hamada K-I, Akashi M. Polymerization within a molecular-scale stereoregular template. Nature 2004;429:52–5.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
Barone C, Romeo F, Pagano S, Adamo M, Nappi C, Sarnelli E, et al. Probing transport mechanisms of BaFe₂As₂ superconducting films and grain boundary junctions by noise spectroscopy. Sci Rep 2014;4:6163.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Joseph C. Advanced Credit Risk Analysis and Management. Oxford, UK: John Wiley & Sons, Ltd; 2013.
An edited book
Moore AJ, Newell DW, editors. Neurosurgery: Principles and Practice. London: Springer; 2005.
A chapter in an edited book
Parui U, Sanil V. Data Synchronization Internals. In: Sanil V, editor. Pro SQL Server Always On Availability Groups, Berkeley, CA: Apress; 2016, p. 35–44.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for The Knee.

Blog post
Andrew E. If We Are To Find Life Beyond Earth, We Need To Be Explorers, Not Hunters. IFLScience 2015.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. Tactical Warning and Attack Assessment System. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office; 1985.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Stachowiak D. How executive coaches use the results of the Myers-Briggs Type Indicator to develop their coachees. Doctoral dissertation. Pepperdine University, 2011.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Pilon M. A Ban on Coed Contact Sports. New York Times 2014:B19.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleThe Knee
ISSN (print)0968-0160
ScopeOrthopedics and Sports Medicine

Other styles