How to format your references using the Current Opinion in Virology citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Current Opinion in Virology. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Cravens TE: X-ray emission from comets. Science 2002, 296:1042–1045.
A journal article with 2 authors
Dickson D, Abbott A: Britain asks to join European Southern Observatory. Nature 2000, 405:382–383.
A journal article with 3 authors
Khan P, Jain H, Adarsh KV: Role of Ge:As ratio in controlling the light-induced response of a-Ge(x)As(35-x)Se65 thin films. Sci Rep 2014, 4:4029.
A journal article with 11 or more authors
Hsu T-C, Liu K-K, Chang H-C, Hwang E, Chao J-I: Labeling of neuronal differentiation and neuron cells with biocompatible fluorescent nanodiamonds. Sci Rep 2014, 4:5004.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Bragg SM: Controllership. John Wiley & Sons, Inc.; 2009.
An edited book
Franzese G, Rubi M (Eds): Aspects of Physical Biology: Biological Water, Protein Solutions, Transport and Replication. Springer; 2008.
A chapter in an edited book
Naseem T, Maus TM: Regional Ventricular Function. In Essential Echocardiography: Transesophageal Echocardiography for Non-cardiac Anesthesiologists. Edited by Maus TM, Nhieu S, Herway ST. Springer International Publishing; 2016:77–93.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Current Opinion in Virology.

Blog post
Andrew E: No Smoke Without Fire – The Link Between Smoking And Mental Health. IFLScience 2015,


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office: Construction of Space Shuttle Facilities at Vandenberg Air Force Base. U.S. Government Printing Office; 1977.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Belflower KE: The relationship between demographic and employment variables of job satisfaction among emergency nurses. 2012,

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Brantley B: Theater; The Terrain Where Generations Meet. New York Times 2017,

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleCurrent Opinion in Virology
AbbreviationCurr. Opin. Virol.
ISSN (print)1879-6257
ISSN (online)1879-6265

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