How to format your references using the Current Opinion in Virology citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Current Opinion in Virology. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Yu H: Et in articulo mortis. Nature 2000, 405:21.
A journal article with 2 authors
Cohen FE, Kelly JW: Therapeutic approaches to protein-misfolding diseases. Nature 2003, 426:905–909.
A journal article with 3 authors
Nowacki A, Wookey J, Kendall J-M: Deformation of the lowermost mantle from seismic anisotropy. Nature 2010, 467:1091–1094.
A journal article with 11 or more authors
Mi D, Li Z, Lim L, Li M, Moissidis M, Yang Y, Gao T, Hu TX, Pratt T, Price DJ, et al.: Early emergence of cortical interneuron diversity in the mouse embryo. Science 2018, 360:81–85.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Center for Chemical Process Safety, American Industrial Hygiene Association: Continuous Monitoring for Hazardous Material Releases. John Wiley & Sons, Inc.; 2009.
An edited book
Perales FJ, Fisher RB (Eds): Articulated Motion and Deformable Objects: 4th International Conference, AMDO 2006, Port d’Andratx, Mallorca, Spain, July 11-14, 2006. Proceedings. Springer; 2006.
A chapter in an edited book
Talreja R: Analysis of Failure in Composite Structures. In Failure and Damage Analysis of Advanced Materials. Edited by Altenbach H, Sadowski T. Springer; 2015:255–278.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Current Opinion in Virology.

Blog post
Luntz S: Ebola Vaccine Passes First Human Trial. IFLScience 2014,


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office: Year 2000 Computing Crisis: Federal Reserve Has Established Effective Year 2000 Management Controls for Internal Systems Conversion. U.S. Government Printing Office; 1999.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Stevenson M: A change for the future: Presidents and deans real and ideal leadership practices at community and junior colleges in Mississippi. 2008,

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Surico J: The Film Festival in a Backyard. New York Times 2017,

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleCurrent Opinion in Virology
AbbreviationCurr. Opin. Virol.
ISSN (print)1879-6257
ISSN (online)1879-6265

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