How to format your references using the Current Opinion in Virology citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Current Opinion in Virology. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Ferrante AW Jr: Biomedicine. Improving metabolism by throwing out all the JNK. Science 2013, 339:147–148.
A journal article with 2 authors
Gregg JM, Kumar A: Applied physics: trawling for complements. Nature 2014, 510:481–482.
A journal article with 3 authors
Zhang C, Chan CT, Hu X: Broadband focusing and collimation of water waves by zero refractive index. Sci Rep 2014, 4:6979.
A journal article with 11 or more authors
Duan Y, Zhang X, Ge C, Wang Y, Cao J, Jia X, Wang J, Zhou M: Development and application of loop-mediated isothermal amplification for detection of the F167Y mutation of carbendazim-resistant isolates in Fusarium graminearum. Sci Rep 2014, 4:7094.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Russell DL, Arlow PC: Industrial Security. John Wiley & Sons, Inc; 2015.
An edited book
Blanchard A, Signore M (Eds): Frontiers of Cosmology: Proceedings of the NATO Advanced Study Institute on The Frontiers of Cosmology Cargèse, France 8–20 September 2003. Springer Netherlands; 2005.
A chapter in an edited book
Anfang SA, Liptzin B: Payment Barriers and Potential Solutions to Psychiatric Service Delivery in the Medical Setting. In Integrated Care in Psychiatry: Redefining the Role of Mental Health Professionals in the Medical Setting. Edited by Summergrad P, Kathol RG. Springer; 2014:55–68.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Current Opinion in Virology.

Blog post
O`Callaghan J: Superconducting Shield Could Protect Astronauts From Radiation. IFLScience 2015,


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office: Federal Research: Aging Federal Laboratories Need Repairs and Upgrades. U.S. Government Printing Office; 1993.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Du L: Economic model for vehicle ownership quota policy analysis. 2012,

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Lee L: Anarchy? No, It’s Art. New York Times 2008,

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleCurrent Opinion in Virology
AbbreviationCurr. Opin. Virol.
ISSN (print)1879-6257
ISSN (online)1879-6265

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