How to format your references using the Current Opinion in Virology citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Current Opinion in Virology. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Wilson RC: The Great Goodbye. Nature 2000, 407:303.
A journal article with 2 authors
Wortmann UG, Paytan A: Rapid variability of seawater chemistry over the past 130 million years. Science 2012, 337:334–336.
A journal article with 3 authors
Percec V, Ungar G, Peterca M: Chemistry. Self-assembly in action. Science 2006, 313:55–56.
A journal article with 11 or more authors
Barkai R, Gopher A, Lauritzen SE, Frumkin A: Uranium series dates from Qesem Cave, Israel, and the end of the Lower Palaeolithic. Nature 2003, 423:977–979.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Durenard EA: Professional Automated Trading. John Wiley & Sons, Inc.; 2013.
An edited book
Kimmel R, Klette R, Sugimoto A (Eds): Computer Vision – ACCV 2010: 10th Asian Conference on Computer Vision, Queenstown, New Zealand, November 8-12, 2010, Revised Selected Papers, Part IV. Springer; 2011.
A chapter in an edited book
Curier L, de Leeuw G, Kolmonen P, Sundström A-M, Sogacheva L, Bennouna Y: Aerosol retrieval over land using the (A)ATSR dual-view algorithm. In Satellite Aerosol Remote Sensing over Land. Edited by Kokhanovsky AA, Leeuw G de. Springer; 2009:135–159.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Current Opinion in Virology.

Blog post
Carpineti A: Hubble’s Incredible Final Image Of The Frontier Fields. IFLScience 2017,


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office: Transportation Safety: Information Concerning Why a 1980 Aircraft Report Was Not Provided Earlier to the National Transportation Safety Board. U.S. Government Printing Office; 1999.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Britt CA: Dying in America: A historical analysis of physician-assisted suicide and euthanasia. 2012,

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Chira S: Ugly Campaign Descended Into a Battle of Two Caricatures. New York Times 2016,

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleCurrent Opinion in Virology
AbbreviationCurr. Opin. Virol.
ISSN (print)1879-6257
ISSN (online)1879-6265

Other styles