How to format your references using the Functional Linguistics citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Functional Linguistics. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Wynne, Clive D. L. 2004. Animal behaviour: fair refusal by capuchin monkeys. Nature 428: 140; discussion 140.
A journal article with 2 authors
McCarl, B. A., and U. A. Schneider. 2001. Climate change. Greenhouse gas mitigation in U.S. agriculture and forestry. Science (New York, N.Y.) 294: 2481–2482.
A journal article with 3 authors
Verbeeck, J., H. Tian, and P. Schattschneider. 2010. Production and application of electron vortex beams. Nature 467: 301–304.
A journal article with 11 or more authors
Wang, S. X., N. X. Sun, M. Yamaguchi, and S. Yabukami. 2000. Properties of a new soft magnetic material. Nature 407: 150–151.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Briffaut, Jean-Pierre. 2015. E-Enabled Operations Management. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
An edited book
Wee Sit, Evro, ed. 2016. Sensors and Instrumentation, Volume 5: Proceedings of the 34th IMAC, A Conference and Exposition on Structural Dynamics 2016. Conference Proceedings of the Society for Experimental Mechanics Series. Cham: Springer International Publishing.
A chapter in an edited book
Dalla Preda, Mila, Maurizio Gabbrielli, Claudio Guidi, Jacopo Mauro, and Fabrizio Montesi. 2012. Interface-Based Service Composition with Aggregation. In Service-Oriented and Cloud Computing: First European Conference, ESOCC 2012, Bertinoro, Italy, September 19-21, 2012. Proceedings, ed. Flavio De Paoli, Ernesto Pimentel, and Gianluigi Zavattaro, 48–63. Lecture Notes in Computer Science. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Functional Linguistics.

Blog post
Taub, Ben. 2016. This Is What Your Brain Looks Like On Different Emotions. IFLScience. IFLScience. September 16.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. 1999. Migrant Children: Education and HHS Need to Improve the Exchange of Participant Information. HEHS-00-4. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Runyan, Taylor E. 2017. A Machine Learning Approach to Quantifying Likely Locations of Gas and Gas Hydrate Accumulation. Doctoral dissertation, Lafayette, LA: University of Louisiana.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
George, Nelson. 2012. A Soul Fable, Reimagined For a New Era. New York Times, August 12.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Wynne 2004).
This sentence cites two references (McCarl and Schneider 2001; Wynne 2004).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (McCarl and Schneider 2001)
  • Three or more authors: (Wang et al. 2000)

About the journal

Full journal titleFunctional Linguistics
ISSN (online)2196-419X

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