How to format your references using the Functional Linguistics citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Functional Linguistics. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
White, N. 2000. Imaging black holes. Nature 407: 146–147.
A journal article with 2 authors
Wang, Rutao, and Xingbin Yan. 2014. Superior asymmetric supercapacitor based on Ni-Co oxide nanosheets and carbon nanorods. Scientific reports 4: 3712.
A journal article with 3 authors
Briggman, Kevin L., Moritz Helmstaedter, and Winfried Denk. 2011. Wiring specificity in the direction-selectivity circuit of the retina. Nature 471: 183–188.
A journal article with 11 or more authors
Ebert, Dieter, Christoph Haag, Mark Kirkpatrick, Myriam Riek, Jurgen W. Hottinger, and V. Ilmari Pajunen. 2002. A selective advantage to immigrant genes in a Daphnia metapopulation. Science (New York, N.Y.) 295: 485–488.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Crane, Lesley. 2015. Knowledge and Discourse Matters. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
An edited book
Marcus, Aaron, ed. 2011. Design, User Experience, and Usability. Theory, Methods, Tools and Practice: First International Conference, DUXU 2011, Held as Part of HCI International 2011, Orlando, FL, USA, July 9-14, 2011, Proceedings, Part II. Vol. 6770. Lecture Notes in Computer Science. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer.
A chapter in an edited book
Jøsang, Audun, Marte Ødegaard, and Erlend Oftedal. 2015. Cybersecurity Through Secure Software Development. In Information Security Education Across the Curriculum: 9th IFIP WG 11.8 World Conference, WISE 9, Hamburg, Germany, May 26-28, 2015, Proceedings, ed. Matt Bishop, Natalia Miloslavskaya, and Marianthi Theocharidou, 53–63. IFIP Advances in Information and Communication Technology. Cham: Springer International Publishing.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Functional Linguistics.

Blog post
O`Callaghan, Jonathan. 2017. First Commercial Airlock To Be Installed On The ISS In 2019. IFLScience. IFLScience. February 7.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. 1982. The Federal Communications Commission’s International Telecommunications Activities. CED-82-77. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Cooper, Torii. 2009. Biting Animals. Doctoral dissertation, Long Beach, CA: California State University, Long Beach.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Kelly, Kate, and Alexandra Stevenson. 2017. Soros Fund Plucks Executive From UBS to Lead Investing. New York Times, January 31.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (White 2000).
This sentence cites two references (White 2000; Wang and Yan 2014).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Wang and Yan 2014)
  • Three or more authors: (Ebert et al. 2002)

About the journal

Full journal titleFunctional Linguistics
ISSN (online)2196-419X

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