How to format your references using the Functional Linguistics citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Functional Linguistics. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Caldecott, Keith W. 2003. Cell signaling. The BRCT domain: signaling with friends? Science (New York, N.Y.) 302: 579–580.
A journal article with 2 authors
Kim, Nayun, and Sue Jinks-Robertson. 2009. dUTP incorporation into genomic DNA is linked to transcription in yeast. Nature 459: 1150–1153.
A journal article with 3 authors
Durack, Paul J., Susan E. Wijffels, and Richard J. Matear. 2012. Ocean salinities reveal strong global water cycle intensification during 1950 to 2000. Science (New York, N.Y.) 336: 455–458.
A journal article with 11 or more authors
Nedelec, Sophie L., Andrew N. Radford, Stephen D. Simpson, Brendan Nedelec, David Lecchini, and Suzanne C. Mills. 2014. Anthropogenic noise playback impairs embryonic development and increases mortality in a marine invertebrate. Scientific reports 4: 5891.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Zack, Gerard M. 2012. Financial Statement Fraud. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
An edited book
Jankovic, Danilo. 2015. Regional Nerve Blocks in Anesthesia and Pain Therapy: Traditional and Ultrasound-Guided Techniques. Edited by Philip Peng. 4th ed. 2015. Cham: Springer International Publishing.
A chapter in an edited book
Monahan, Thomas S. 2012. Microvascular Changes in the Diabetic Foot. In Diabetes and Peripheral Vascular Disease: Diagnosis and Management, ed. Gautam V. Shrikhande and James F. McKinsey, 53–62. Totowa, NJ: Humana Press.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Functional Linguistics.

Blog post
Andrew, Elise. 2015. How To Make Sense Of ‘Alarming’ Sea Level Forecasts. IFLScience. IFLScience. August 9.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. 2003. Business Modernization: NASA’s Challenges in Managing Its Integrated Financial Management Program. GAO-04-255. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Becker, Liza A. 2010. Noncredit to credit transitions: The role of cultural capital and habitus for adult immigrant learners in the community college. Doctoral dissertation, Long Beach, CA: California State University, Long Beach.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Gordon, Michael R. 2017. On the Mosul Front, a Block-by-Block Fight Against ISIS and Time. New York Times, April 26.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Caldecott 2003).
This sentence cites two references (Caldecott 2003; Kim and Jinks-Robertson 2009).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Kim and Jinks-Robertson 2009)
  • Three or more authors: (Nedelec et al. 2014)

About the journal

Full journal titleFunctional Linguistics
ISSN (online)2196-419X

Other styles