How to format your references using the Functional Linguistics citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Functional Linguistics. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Levinger, Nancy E. 2002. Chemistry. Water in confinement. Science (New York, N.Y.) 298: 1722–1723.
A journal article with 2 authors
Feldmann, Marc, and Lawrence Steinman. 2005. Design of effective immunotherapy for human autoimmunity. Nature 435: 612–619.
A journal article with 3 authors
Barkeshli, Maissam, Erez Berg, and Steven Kivelson. 2014. Coherent transmutation of electrons into fractionalized anyons. Science (New York, N.Y.) 346: 722–725.
A journal article with 11 or more authors
Sumner, Seirian, William O. H. Hughes, Jes S. Pedersen, and Jacobus J. Boomsma. 2004. Ant parasite queens revert to mating singly. Nature 428: 35–36.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Belsey, Catherine. 2011. A Future for Criticism. Oxford, UK: Wiley-Blackwell.
An edited book
Amin, Zahid, Jonathan M. Tobis, Horst Sievert, and John D. Carroll, ed. 2015. Patent Foramen Ovale. London: Springer.
A chapter in an edited book
Kontorovich, V., and Z. Lovtchikova. 2009. Cumulant Analysis of Strange Attractors: Theory and Applications. In Recent Advances in Nonlinear Dynamics and Synchronization: Theory and Applications, ed. Kyandoghere Kyamakya, Wolfgang A. Halang, Herwig Unger, Jean Chamberlain Chedjou, Nikolai F. Rulkov, and Zhong Li, 77–115. Studies in Computational Intelligence. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Functional Linguistics.

Blog post
Luntz, Stephen. 2014. Regenerating Plastic Oozes Clot-Like Goo. IFLScience. IFLScience. May 9.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. 1988. [Comments on Panama Canal Revolving Fund Act]. B-204078.2. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Liang, Jeffrey Ryan. 2017. A Risk Analysis of the Molybdenum-99 Supply Chain Using Bayesian Networks. Doctoral dissertation, Washington, DC: George Washington University.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Saslow, Linda. 2009. Nassau and Union in Deal to Avoid Layoffs. New York Times, March 15.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Levinger 2002).
This sentence cites two references (Levinger 2002; Feldmann and Steinman 2005).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Feldmann and Steinman 2005)
  • Three or more authors: (Sumner et al. 2004)

About the journal

Full journal titleFunctional Linguistics
ISSN (online)2196-419X

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