How to format your references using the Functional Linguistics citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Functional Linguistics. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Russo, Eugene. 2002. Biodefence research. Nature 416: 4–5.
A journal article with 2 authors
Bisley, James W., and Michael E. Goldberg. 2003. Neuronal activity in the lateral intraparietal area and spatial attention. Science (New York, N.Y.) 299: 81–86.
A journal article with 3 authors
Cai, Wenshan, Alok P. Vasudev, and Mark L. Brongersma. 2011. Electrically controlled nonlinear generation of light with plasmonics. Science (New York, N.Y.) 333: 1720–1723.
A journal article with 11 or more authors
Xia, Jing, Ying Zhang, Jun Qian, Xiaojun Zhu, Yafen Zhang, Jianqiong Zhang, and Gang Zhao. 2013. Isolation, identification and expression of specific human CD133 antibodies. Scientific reports 3: 3320.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Dao, Tien Tuan, and Marie-Christine Ho Ba Tho. 2014. Biomechanics of the Musculoskeletal System. Chichester, UK: John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
An edited book
Mazerolle, Lorraine. 2014. Procedural Justice and Legitimacy in Policing. Edited by Elise Sargeant, Adrian Cherney, Sarah Bennett, Kristina Murphy, Emma Antrobus, and Peter Martin. SpringerBriefs in Criminology. Cham: Springer International Publishing.
A chapter in an edited book
Fischer, Veronique, and Michael Ruzhansky. 2016. Rockland operators and Sobolev spaces. In Quantization on Nilpotent Lie Groups, ed. Michael Ruzhansky, 171–269. Progress in Mathematics. Cham: Springer International Publishing.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Functional Linguistics.

Blog post
Andrew, Elise. 2015. Cities, Cyborgs And Social Science: How Will We Live In The Year 2065? IFLScience. IFLScience. August 17.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. 2004. Interdepartment Radio Advisory Committee: IRAC Representatives Effectively Coordinate Federal Spectrum but Lack Seniority to Advise on Contentious Policy Issues. GAO-04-1028. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Dixon, Laura Kellie. 2009. Tracing anthropogenic wastes: Detection of fluorescent optical brighteners in a gradient of natural organic matter fluorescence. Doctoral dissertation, Tampa, FL: University of South Florida.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Wagner, James. 2017. Astros Even It Up in Home Run Derby. New York Times, October 26.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Russo 2002).
This sentence cites two references (Russo 2002; Bisley and Goldberg 2003).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Bisley and Goldberg 2003)
  • Three or more authors: (Xia et al. 2013)

About the journal

Full journal titleFunctional Linguistics
ISSN (online)2196-419X

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