How to format your references using the Functional Linguistics citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Functional Linguistics. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Driehuys, Bastiaan. 2006. Chemistry. Toward molecular imaging with xenon MRI. Science (New York, N.Y.) 314: 432–433.
A journal article with 2 authors
Anderson, David, and Sydney Brenner. 2008. Obituary: Seymour Benzer (1921-2007). Nature 451: 139.
A journal article with 3 authors
Nawae, Wanapinun, Supa Hannongbua, and Marasri Ruengjitchatchawalya. 2014. Defining the membrane disruption mechanism of kalata B1 via coarse-grained molecular dynamics simulations. Scientific reports 4: 3933.
A journal article with 11 or more authors
Jiang, Dong, Mengmeng Hao, Jingying Fu, Dafang Zhuang, and Yaohuan Huang. 2014. Spatial-temporal variation of marginal land suitable for energy plants from 1990 to 2010 in China. Scientific reports 4: 5816.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Manuele, Fred A. 2005. On the Practice of Safety. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
An edited book
Abrahamsson, Pekka, Richard Baskerville, Kieran Conboy, Brian Fitzgerald, Lorraine Morgan, and Xiaofeng Wang, ed. 2008. Agile Processes in Software Engineering and Extreme Programming: 9th International Conference, XP 2008, Limerick, Ireland, June 10-14, 2008. Proceedings. Vol. 9. Lecture Notes in Business Information Processing. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer.
A chapter in an edited book
Mycroft, Alan. 2012. Isolation Types and Multi-core Architectures. In Formal Verification of Object-Oriented Software: International Conference, FoVeOOS 2011, Turin, Italy, October 5-7, 2011, Revised Selected Papers, ed. Bernhard Beckert, Ferruccio Damiani, and Dilian Gurov, 33–48. Lecture Notes in Computer Science. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Functional Linguistics.

Blog post
Davis, Josh. 2016. New Zealand Aims To Completely Eradicate All Introduced Mammalian Predators By 2050. IFLScience. IFLScience. July 25.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. 2002. Commercial Aviation: Air Service Trends At Small Communities Since October 2000. GAO-02-432. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Mazyck, Beaatrice Sha’ron. 2012. Leadership behavior and teacher attrition: A qualitative phenomenological inquiry of job satisfaction. Doctoral dissertation, Phoenix, AZ: University of Phoenix.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Vecsey, George. 2011. Accountability Would Seem to Begin and End With Referees. New York Times, March 12.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Driehuys 2006).
This sentence cites two references (Driehuys 2006; Anderson and Brenner 2008).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Anderson and Brenner 2008)
  • Three or more authors: (Jiang et al. 2014)

About the journal

Full journal titleFunctional Linguistics
ISSN (online)2196-419X

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