How to format your references using the Irish Educational Studies citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Irish Educational Studies. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Michelson, Alan M. 2008. “Developmental Biology. From Genetic Association to Genetic Switch.” Science (New York, N.Y.) 322 (5909): 1803–1804.
A journal article with 2 authors
Martin, Thomas, and Irina Ruf. 2009. “Paleontology. On the Mammalian Ear.” Science (New York, N.Y.) 326 (5950): 243–244.
A journal article with 3 authors
Mathew-Fenn, Rebecca S., Rhiju Das, and Pehr A. B. Harbury. 2008. “Remeasuring the Double Helix.” Science (New York, N.Y.) 322 (5900): 446–449.
A journal article with 11 or more authors
Watters, Thomas R., Carl J. Leuschen, Jeffrey J. Plaut, Giovanni Picardi, Ali Safaeinili, Stephen M. Clifford, William M. Farrell, Anton B. Ivanov, Roger J. Phillips, and Ellen R. Stofan. 2006. “MARSIS Radar Sounder Evidence of Buried Basins in the Northern Lowlands of Mars.” Nature 444 (7121): 905–908.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Gabler, Jay. 2010. Sociology for Dummies®. Hoboken, NJ: Wiley Publishing, Inc.
An edited book
Luisi, Pier Luigi, and Pasquale Stano, eds. 2011. The Minimal Cell: The Biophysics of Cell Compartment and the Origin of Cell Functionality. Dordrecht: Springer Netherlands.
A chapter in an edited book
Boulding, J. Russell. 2016. “Women’s Movements for Social Change: Social Feminism and Equity Feminism (1994).” In Elise Boulding: Writings on Feminism, the Family and Quakerism, edited by J. Russell Boulding, 41–67. Pioneers in Arts, Humanities, Science, Engineering, Practice. Cham: Springer International Publishing.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Irish Educational Studies.

Blog post
Carpineti, Chris. 2017. “Hundreds of Nuclear Test Clips Have Been Declassified, And The Footage Is Both Awe-Inspiring And Terrifying.” IFLScience. IFLScience.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. 1988. The Rise of Political Science. 137895. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Nunn, Travis N. 2014. “A Puer–Senex Archetypal Model of the Therapeutic Relationship.” Doctoral dissertation, Carpinteria, CA: Pacifica Graduate Institute.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Crow, Kelly. 2001. “Looking For Love.” New York Times, February 11.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Michelson 2008).
This sentence cites two references (Michelson 2008; Martin and Ruf 2009).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Martin and Ruf 2009)
  • Three authors: (Mathew-Fenn, Das, and Harbury 2008)
  • 4 or more authors: (Watters et al. 2006)

About the journal

Full journal titleIrish Educational Studies
AbbreviationIr. Educ. Stud.
ISSN (print)0332-3315
ISSN (online)1747-4965

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