How to format your references using the Irish Educational Studies citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Irish Educational Studies. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Willyard, Cassandra. 2015. “Pharmacotherapy: Quest for the Quitting Pill.” Nature 522 (7557): S53-5.
A journal article with 2 authors
Strain, Alastair J., and James M. Neuberger. 2002. “A Bioartificial Liver--State of the Art.” Science (New York, N.Y.) 295 (5557): 1005–1009.
A journal article with 3 authors
Schieber, J., D. Krinsley, and L. Riciputi. 2000. “Diagenetic Origin of Quartz Silt in Mudstones and Implications for Silica Cycling.” Nature 406 (6799): 981–985.
A journal article with 11 or more authors
Partridge, Emily A., Christine Le Roy, Gianni M. Di Guglielmo, Judy Pawling, Pam Cheung, Maria Granovsky, Ivan R. Nabi, Jeffrey L. Wrana, and James W. Dennis. 2004. “Regulation of Cytokine Receptors by Golgi N-Glycan Processing and Endocytosis.” Science (New York, N.Y.) 306 (5693): 120–124.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Shick, Paul L. 2007. Topology. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
An edited book
Dervin, Fred, and Hanna Ragnarsdóttir, eds. 2014. Origins: A Sustainable Concept in Education. Vol. 104. Transgressions, Cultural Studies and Education. Rotterdam: SensePublishers.
A chapter in an edited book
Barton, Georgina. 2015. “Reflective Practice in Music: A Collaborative Professional Approach.” In Teaching Reflective Learning in Higher Education: A Systematic Approach Using Pedagogic Patterns, edited by Mary Elizabeth Ryan, 65–76. Cham: Springer International Publishing.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Irish Educational Studies.

Blog post
Fang, Janet. 2015. “New Study Suggests HIV-Prevention Pill May Be 100% Effective.” IFLScience. IFLScience.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. 1991. Major NIH Computer System: Poor Management Resulted in Unmet Scientists’ Needs and Wasted Millions. IMTEC-92-5. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
McCafferty, Brent. 2009. “Chalk Talk.” Doctoral dissertation, College Park, MD: University of Maryland, College Park.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Vecsey, George. 2010. “Baseball Since 1869; Last Pennant Only Seems That Long Ago.” New York Times, August 23.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Willyard 2015).
This sentence cites two references (Willyard 2015; Strain and Neuberger 2002).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Strain and Neuberger 2002)
  • Three authors: (Schieber, Krinsley, and Riciputi 2000)
  • 4 or more authors: (Partridge et al. 2004)

About the journal

Full journal titleIrish Educational Studies
AbbreviationIr. Educ. Stud.
ISSN (print)0332-3315
ISSN (online)1747-4965

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