How to format your references using the Irish Educational Studies citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Irish Educational Studies. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Glynn, I. 2001. “An Intriguing Door.” Nature 413 (6857): 683.
A journal article with 2 authors
Svetlizky, Ilya, and Jay Fineberg. 2014. “Classical Shear Cracks Drive the Onset of Dry Frictional Motion.” Nature 509 (7499): 205–208.
A journal article with 3 authors
Li, Cheng-Yu T., Mu-Ming Poo, and Yang Dan. 2009. “Burst Spiking of a Single Cortical Neuron Modifies Global Brain State.” Science (New York, N.Y.) 324 (5927): 643–646.
A journal article with 11 or more authors
Shafir, Sharoni, Taly Reich, Erez Tsur, Ido Erev, and Arnon Lotem. 2008. “Perceptual Accuracy and Conflicting Effects of Certainty on Risk-Taking Behaviour.” Nature 453 (7197): 917–920.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Sizer, Andrew, Chandrika Balachandar, Nibedan Biswas, Richard Foon, Anthony Griffiths, Sheena Hodgett, Banchhita Sahu, and Martyn Underwood. 2016. Part 2 MRCOG: Single Best Answer Questions. Chichester, UK: John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
An edited book
Rebeiz, Constantin A., Christoph Benning, Hans J. Bohnert, Henry Daniell, J. Kenneth Hoober, Hartmut K. Lichtenthaler, Archie R. Portis, and Baishnab C. Tripathy, eds. 2010. The Chloroplast: Basics and Applications. Vol. 31. Advances in Photosynthesis and Respiration. Dordrecht: Springer Netherlands.
A chapter in an edited book
Wheatly, Michele G., Yongping Gao, and Christopher M. Gillen. 2010. “Epithelial Calcium Transport in Crustaceans: Adaptation to Intrinsic and Extrinsic Stressors.” In Epithelial Transport Physiology, edited by George A. Gerencser, 73–90. Totowa, NJ: Humana Press.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Irish Educational Studies.

Blog post
Davis, Josh. 2015. “Growing Up With A Dog Could Lower Risk Of Developing Asthma.” IFLScience. IFLScience.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. 2011. Nextgen Air Transportation System: Mechanisms for Collaboration and Technology Transfer Could Be Enhanced to More Fully Leverage Partner Agency and Industry Resources. GAO-11-604. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Gogri, Dhara. 2017. “Effect of Water Hardness on Adsorption of Lead From Aqueous Solutions Using Douglas Fir Biochar.” Doctoral dissertation, Mississippi State, MS: Mississippi State University.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Stewart, James B. 2017. “Feel Optimistic About the Booming Market? Then Read at Your Own Risk.” New York Times, June 29.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Glynn 2001).
This sentence cites two references (Glynn 2001; Svetlizky and Fineberg 2014).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Svetlizky and Fineberg 2014)
  • Three authors: (Li, Poo, and Dan 2009)
  • 4 or more authors: (Shafir et al. 2008)

About the journal

Full journal titleIrish Educational Studies
AbbreviationIr. Educ. Stud.
ISSN (print)0332-3315
ISSN (online)1747-4965

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