How to format your references using the Irish Educational Studies citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Irish Educational Studies. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Quinlan, Roy A. 2015. “DRUG DISCOVERY. A New Dawn for Cataracts.” Science (New York, N.Y.) 350 (6261): 636–637.
A journal article with 2 authors
Reck, Barbara K., and T. E. Graedel. 2012. “Challenges in Metal Recycling.” Science (New York, N.Y.) 337 (6095): 690–695.
A journal article with 3 authors
Grottoli, Andréa G., Lisa J. Rodrigues, and James E. Palardy. 2006. “Heterotrophic Plasticity and Resilience in Bleached Corals.” Nature 440 (7088): 1186–1189.
A journal article with 11 or more authors
Yasmin, Lyzu, Xianjue Chen, Keith A. Stubbs, and Colin L. Raston. 2013. “Optimising a Vortex Fluidic Device for Controlling Chemical Reactivity and Selectivity.” Scientific Reports 3: 2282.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Robson Wright, Margaret. 2005. An Introduction to Chemical Kinetics. Chichester, UK: John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
An edited book
Benettin, Giancarlo. 2005. Hamiltonian Dynamics. Theory and Applications: Lectures given at the C.I.M.E.-E.M.S. Summer School Held in Cetraro, Italy, July 1-10, 1999. Edited by Jacques Henrard and Sergei Kuksin. Vol. 1861. Lecture Notes in Mathematics, Fondazione C.I.M.E., Firenze. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer.
A chapter in an edited book
Reinders, Machiel. 2011. “The Role of Social Networks: Mark Granovetter.” In Transformation and Sustainability in Agriculture: Connecting Practice with Social Theory, edited by Sietze Vellema, 49–56. Wageningen: Wageningen Academic Publishers.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Irish Educational Studies.

Blog post
Luntz, Stephen. 2016. “Organic Molecules That Glow At Room Temperature Make Energy-Efficient Lights.” IFLScience. IFLScience.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. 2010. Low-Income and Minority Serving Institutions: Sustained Attention Needed to Improve Education’s Oversight of Grant Programs. GAO-10-659T. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Bennett, Michael A. 2017. “The Underrepresentation of Registered Nurses in Hospital CEO Positions: A Grounded Theory Study.” Doctoral dissertation, Phoenix, AZ: University of Phoenix.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Ryerson, James. 2017. “University Presses.” New York Times, June 30.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Quinlan 2015).
This sentence cites two references (Quinlan 2015; Reck and Graedel 2012).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Reck and Graedel 2012)
  • Three authors: (Grottoli, Rodrigues, and Palardy 2006)
  • 4 or more authors: (Yasmin et al. 2013)

About the journal

Full journal titleIrish Educational Studies
AbbreviationIr. Educ. Stud.
ISSN (print)0332-3315
ISSN (online)1747-4965

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