How to format your references using the Irish Educational Studies citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Irish Educational Studies. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Ball, Philip. 2013. “Arts: Reinventing Galileo.” Nature 494 (7438): 428–429.
A journal article with 2 authors
West, Stuart A., and Ben C. Sheldon. 2002. “Constraints in the Evolution of Sex Ratio Adjustment.” Science (New York, N.Y.) 295 (5560): 1685–1688.
A journal article with 3 authors
McNamara, John M., Zoltan Barta, and Alasdair I. Houston. 2004. “Variation in Behaviour Promotes Cooperation in the Prisoner’s Dilemma Game.” Nature 428 (6984): 745–748.
A journal article with 11 or more authors
Robinson, Laura F., Jess F. Adkins, Lloyd D. Keigwin, John Southon, Diego P. Fernandez, S-L Wang, and Daniel S. Scheirer. 2005. “Radiocarbon Variability in the Western North Atlantic during the Last Deglaciation.” Science (New York, N.Y.) 310 (5753): 1469–1473.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Morris, Alan S. 2006. ISO 14000 Environmental Management Standards. Chichester, UK: John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
An edited book
Löwe, Welf, and Mario Südholt, eds. 2006. Software Composition: 5th International Symposium, SC 2006 Vienna, Austria, March 25-26, 2006 Revised Papers. Vol. 4089. Lecture Notes in Computer Science. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer.
A chapter in an edited book
Panin, Ivan. 2005. “Purity for Multipliers.” In Algebra and Number Theory: Proceedings of the Silver Jubilee Conference University of Hyderabad, edited by Rajat Tandon, 66–89. Graduate Texts in Math. Gurgaon: Hindustan Book Agency.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Irish Educational Studies.

Blog post
Andrew, Elise. 2015. “New DNA Technique Means Pointing The Finger At The Right Identical Twin Just Got Easier.” IFLScience. IFLScience.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. 1991. Tax System Modernization: Attention to Critical Issues Can Bring Success. T-IMTEC-91-8. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Sutherland, Claire Euline. 2013. “Positive Deviance during Organization Change: Researchers’ Social Construction of Expanded University Goals.” Doctoral dissertation, Malibu, CA: Pepperdine University.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Brantley, Ben. 2016. “Dear Theatergoers: Prepare for a Good Cry.” New York Times, December 8.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Ball 2013).
This sentence cites two references (Ball 2013; West and Sheldon 2002).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (West and Sheldon 2002)
  • Three authors: (McNamara, Barta, and Houston 2004)
  • 4 or more authors: (Robinson et al. 2005)

About the journal

Full journal titleIrish Educational Studies
AbbreviationIr. Educ. Stud.
ISSN (print)0332-3315
ISSN (online)1747-4965

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