How to format your references using the BRQ Business Research Quarterly citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for BRQ Business Research Quarterly. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Gutchess, A., 2014. Plasticity of the aging brain: new directions in cognitive neuroscience. Science 346, 579–582.
A journal article with 2 authors
Kippenberg, T.J., Vahala, K.J., 2008. Cavity optomechanics: back-action at the mesoscale. Science 321, 1172–1176.
A journal article with 3 authors
Gwak, G., Ko, J., Ju, H., 2014. Effects of porous properties on cold-start behavior of polymer electrolyte fuel cells from sub-zero to normal operating temperatures. Sci. Rep. 4, 5770.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Ray, P.S., Jia, J., Yao, P., Majumder, M., Hatzoglou, M., Fox, P.L., 2009. A stress-responsive RNA switch regulates VEGFA expression. Nature 457, 915–919.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Todeschini, R., Baccini, A., 2016. Handbook of Bibliometric Indicators. Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim, Germany.
An edited book
Simpkins, C.A., 2013. Neuroscience for Clinicians: Evidence, Models, and Practice. Springer, New York, NY.
A chapter in an edited book
Mazurek, K., 2015. Transformation of the Structure of the River Catchment Landscape Located in the Area of Intensive Coal Exploitation, in: Luc, M., Somorowska, U., Szmańda, J.B. (Eds.), Landscape Analysis and Planning: Geographical Perspectives, Springer Geography. Springer International Publishing, Cham, pp. 81–90.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for BRQ Business Research Quarterly.

Blog post
Fang, J., 2014. Peer Deeply into the Cross-Section of the Universe [WWW Document]. IFLScience. URL (accessed 10.30.18).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office, 1997. Medicaid: Graduate Medical Education Payments (No. HEHS-97-77R). U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Villanueva, R., 2015. Issues of performance practice: The influence of Franz Strauss upon Richard Strauss’s Horn Concerto No. 1 (Doctoral dissertation). California State University, Long Beach, Long Beach, CA.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
McKINLEY, J.C., Jr, 2017. Oakley Rejects Plea Bargain And Demands Day in Court. New York Times A19.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Gutchess, 2014).
This sentence cites two references (Gutchess, 2014; Kippenberg and Vahala, 2008).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Kippenberg and Vahala, 2008)
  • Three or more authors: (Ray et al., 2009)

About the journal

Full journal titleBRQ Business Research Quarterly
ISSN (print)2340-9436

Other styles