How to format your references using the Spectroscopy Letters citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Spectroscopy Letters. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Bréchot, C. Train Africa’s scientists in crisis response. Nature 2015, 524(7563), 7.
A journal article with 2 authors
Minetti, A.E.; Ardigó, L.P. Halteres used in ancient Olympic long jump. Nature 2002, 420(6912), 141–142.
A journal article with 3 authors
Xiao, S.; Li, R.; Chen, M. Detecting sedimentary cycles using autocorrelation of grain size. Scientific reports 2013, 3, 1653.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
Liang, L.; Zhang, J.; Zhou, Y.; Xie, J.; Zhang, X.; Guan, M.; et al. High-performance flexible electrochromic device based on facile semiconductor-to-metal transition realized by WO3·2H2O ultrathin nanosheets. Scientific reports 2013, 3, 1936.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Clark, G. The Making of a World City; John Wiley & Sons, Ltd: Chichester, UK, 2014.
An edited book
Hackney, P. Infinity Properads and Infinity Wheeled Properads; M. Robertson, D. Yau, Eds.; 1st ed. 2015 Springer International Publishing: Cham, 2015.
A chapter in an edited book
Prieur, C. Recent results on weak dependence for causal sequences. Statistical applications to dynamical systems. In Dependence in Probability and Statistics; P. Bertail, P. Soulier, P. Doukhan, Eds.; Springer: New York, NY, 2006, 87–104.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Spectroscopy Letters.

Blog post
Andrew, E. Two-Headed Salamander Born In Israel. IFLScience: 2014, [Oct 30 2018].


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office Student Aid and Tax Benefits: Better Research and Guidance Will Facilitate Comparison of Effectiveness and Student Use; U.S. Government Printing Office: Washington, DC, 2002.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Leung, R. The Effect of Mission Assurance on ELV Launch Success Rate: An Analysis of Two Management Systems for Launch Vehicles. [Doctoral dissertation] George Washington University: Washington, DC, 2014.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Vecsey, G. Where Many Things Besides the Islanders Need Fixing; 2011, SP9.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleSpectroscopy Letters
AbbreviationSpectrosc. Lett.
ISSN (print)0038-7010
ISSN (online)1532-2289
ScopeAnalytical Chemistry
Atomic and Molecular Physics, and Optics

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