How to format your references using the Spectroscopy Letters citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Spectroscopy Letters. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Balch, A.L. Chemistry. H₂O in a desert of carbon atoms. Science (New York, N.Y.) 2011, 333(6042), 531–532.
A journal article with 2 authors
Dresselhaus, M.S.; Thomas, I.L. Alternative energy technologies. Nature 2001, 414(6861), 332–337.
A journal article with 3 authors
Ito, K.; Uno, M.; Nakamura, Y. A tripeptide “anticodon” deciphers stop codons in messenger RNA. Nature 2000, 403(6770), 680–684.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
Berns, G.S.; Chappelow, J.; Cekic, M.; Zink, C.F.; Pagnoni, G.; Martin-Skurski, M.E. Neurobiological substrates of dread. Science (New York, N.Y.) 2006, 312(5774), 754–758.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Chow, S.-C.; Liu, J.-P. Design and Analysis of Clinical Trials: Concepts and Methodologies; John Wiley & Sons, Inc.: Hoboken, NJ, 2005.
An edited book
Semmler, W.; Schwaiger, M., eds. Molecular Imaging I; Springer: Berlin, Heidelberg, 2008.
A chapter in an edited book
Dincer, I.; Joshi, A.S. Thermodynamic Analysis. In Solar Based Hydrogen Production Systems; A.S. Joshi, Ed.; Springer: New York, NY, 2013, 73–82.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Spectroscopy Letters.

Blog post
Andrew, E. What Counts As “Medical Marijuana” Varies From State To State – And That’s A Problem. IFLScience: 2016, [Oct 30 2018].


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office Weather Satellites: Economies Available by Converging Government Meteorological Satellites; U.S. Government Printing Office: Washington, DC, 1987.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Frey, E.F. Technology diffusion and environmental regulation: Evidence from electric power plants under the Clean Air Act. [Doctoral dissertation] George Washington University: Washington, DC, 2008.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
O’connell, M.E. The Questions Brennan Can’t Dodge; 2013, A27.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleSpectroscopy Letters
AbbreviationSpectrosc. Lett.
ISSN (print)0038-7010
ISSN (online)1532-2289
ScopeAnalytical Chemistry
Atomic and Molecular Physics, and Optics

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