How to format your references using the The Journal of Thoracic and Cardiovascular Surgery citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for The Journal of Thoracic and Cardiovascular Surgery. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Wallsten S. High-tech cluster bombs. Nature. 2004;428(6979):121-122.
A journal article with 2 authors
Raymond PA, Bauer JE. Riverine export of aged terrestrial organic matter to the North Atlantic Ocean. Nature. 2001;409(6819):497-500.
A journal article with 3 authors
Arnarez C, Marrink SJ, Periole X. Identification of cardiolipin binding sites on cytochrome c oxidase at the entrance of proton channels. Sci Rep. 2013;3:1263.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
Wei T, Huang YH, Zeng R, et al. Evaluation of Ca3Co2O6 as cathode material for high-performance solid-oxide fuel cell. Sci Rep. 2013;3:1125.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Bojar RM. Manual of Perioperative Care in Adult Cardiac Surgery. Wiley-Blackwell; 2010.
An edited book
Schlickewei HP, Schmidt K, Tichy RF, eds. Diophantine Approximation: Festschrift for Wolfgang Schmidt. Vol 16. Springer; 2008.
A chapter in an edited book
Damasio H. Disorders of Social Conduct Following Damage to Prefrontal Cortices. In: Changeux JP, Damasio AR, Singer W, Christen Y, eds. Neurobiology of Human Values. Research and Perspectives in Neurosciences. Springer; 2005:37-46.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for The Journal of Thoracic and Cardiovascular Surgery.

Blog post
Luntz S. European Dinosaurs Died Off Fast. IFLScience. Published January 14, 2015. Accessed October 30, 2018.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. District of Columbia Opportunity Scholarship Program: Actions Needed to Address Weaknesses in Administration and Oversight. U.S. Government Printing Office; 2013.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Wahl RJ. Agustín Barrios and Musical Identity: Tangos in Early Twentieth-Century Guitar Repertory. Doctoral dissertation. California State University, Long Beach; 2012.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Kishkovsky S. At a Russian Hospital, Art Inspires Children. New York Times. January 7, 2006:B9.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in superscript:

This sentence cites one reference 1.
This sentence cites two references 1,2.
This sentence cites four references 1–4.

About the journal

Full journal titleThe Journal of Thoracic and Cardiovascular Surgery
AbbreviationJ. Thorac. Cardiovasc. Surg.
ISSN (print)0022-5223
ScopeCardiology and Cardiovascular Medicine
Pulmonary and Respiratory Medicine

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