How to format your references using the The Journal of Thoracic and Cardiovascular Surgery citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for The Journal of Thoracic and Cardiovascular Surgery. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Crow JF. The beanbag lives on. Nature. 2001;409(6822):771.
A journal article with 2 authors
Mechoulam R, Lichtman AH. Neuroscience. Stout guards of the central nervous system. Science. 2003;302(5642):65-67.
A journal article with 3 authors
Taneike M, Abe F, Sawada K. Creep-strengthening of steel at high temperatures using nano-sized carbonitride dispersions. Nature. 2003;424(6946):294-296.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
Roeffaers MBJ, Sels BF, Uji-I H, et al. Spatially resolved observation of crystal-face-dependent catalysis by single turnover counting. Nature. 2006;439(7076):572-575.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Robyns B, François B, Delille G, Saudemont C. Energy Storage in Electric Power Grids. John Wiley & Sons, Inc.; 2015.
An edited book
Dössel O, Schlegel WC, eds. World Congress on Medical Physics and Biomedical Engineering, September 7 - 12, 2009, Munich, Germany: Vol. 25/12 General Subjects. Vol 25/12. Springer; 2009.
A chapter in an edited book
Carey FA, Sundberg RJ. Electrophilic Additions to Carbon-Carbon Multiple Bonds. In: Sundberg RJ, ed. Advanced Organic Chemistry: Part B: Reactions and Synthesis. Advanced Organic Chemistry. Springer US; 2007:289-365.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for The Journal of Thoracic and Cardiovascular Surgery.

Blog post
Hale T. North Face Has Created A Coat Made From Biotech Spider Silk. IFLScience. Published November 16, 2015. Accessed October 30, 2018.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. Comments on Panama Canal Revolving Fund Act. U.S. Government Printing Office; 1988.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Christian TM. Under the Navajo Stars: The Intersection of Mythic Narratives, Archaeology, and Star Ceilings. Doctoral dissertation. Pacifica Graduate Institute; 2012.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Hollander S. Running for Herself and in Memory. New York Times. November 4, 2002:F2.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in superscript:

This sentence cites one reference 1.
This sentence cites two references 1,2.
This sentence cites four references 1–4.

About the journal

Full journal titleThe Journal of Thoracic and Cardiovascular Surgery
AbbreviationJ. Thorac. Cardiovasc. Surg.
ISSN (print)0022-5223
ScopeCardiology and Cardiovascular Medicine
Pulmonary and Respiratory Medicine

Other styles