# How to format your references using the The Journal of Thoracic and Cardiovascular Surgery citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for The Journal of Thoracic and Cardiovascular Surgery. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

## Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

## Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
1.
Hughes V. Microenvironment: Neighbourhood watch. Nature. 2011;480(7377):S48-9.
A journal article with 2 authors
1.
Sunami A, Kurokawa K. Recession Watch: No time for nationalism. Nature. 2009;457(7232):960-961.
A journal article with 3 authors
1.
Myrskylä M, Kohler HP, Billari FC. Advances in development reverse fertility declines. Nature. 2009;460(7256):741-743.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
1.
Benassi A, Marioni MA, Passerone D, Hug HJ. Role of interface coupling inhomogeneity in domain evolution in exchange bias. Sci Rep. 2014;4:4508.

## Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
1.
Peterson RL, Murtha FF. MarketPsych. John Wiley & Sons, Inc.; 2010.
An edited book
1.
Reimer H, Pohlmann N, Schneider W, eds. ISSE 2014 Securing Electronic Business Processes: Highlights of the Information Security Solutions Europe 2014 Conference. Springer Fachmedien Wiesbaden; 2014.
A chapter in an edited book
1.
Zhang Q, Canova M. Output Feedback Control of Automotive Air Conditioning System Using $$H_{\infty }$$ Technique. In: Li SE, Deng K, eds. Automotive Air Conditioning: Optimization, Control and Diagnosis. Springer International Publishing; 2016:73-95.

## Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for The Journal of Thoracic and Cardiovascular Surgery.

Blog post
1.
O`Callaghan J. SpaceX Will Launch A Groundbreaking MRSA Experiment To The ISS Next Week. IFLScience.

## Reports

This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
1.
Government Accountability Office. Managing Host Country Contracting Activities. U.S. Government Printing Office; 1982.

## Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
1.
Galyer DL. The Influence of Reference Objects on Vector-Based Memory Representations. Doctoral dissertation. George Washington University; 2019.

## News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
1.
Crow K. One Week of Silent Soccer Seems to Be Quite Enough. New York Times. May 5, 2002:146.

## In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in superscript:

This sentence cites one reference 1.
This sentence cites two references 1,2.
This sentence cites four references 1–4.