How to format your references using the The Journal of Thoracic and Cardiovascular Surgery citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for The Journal of Thoracic and Cardiovascular Surgery. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
1.
Gregersen PK. Genetics. A genomic road map for complex human disease. Science. 2014;343(6175):1087-1088.
A journal article with 2 authors
1.
Brochier C, Philippe H. Phylogeny: a non-hyperthermophilic ancestor for bacteria. Nature. 2002;417(6886):244.
A journal article with 3 authors
1.
Smallman HS, MacLeod DI, Doyle P. Vision. Realignment of cones after cataract removal. Nature. 2001;412(6847):604-605.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
1.
Suzuki HI, Yamagata K, Sugimoto K, Iwamoto T, Kato S, Miyazono K. Modulation of microRNA processing by p53. Nature. 2009;460(7254):529-533.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
1.
Schiesser WE. Spline Collocation Methods for Partial Differential Equations. John Wiley & Sons, Inc.; 2017.
An edited book
1.
Leal Filho W, Mannke F, Mohee R, Schulte V, Surroop D, eds. Climate-Smart Technologies: Integrating Renewable Energy and Energy Efficiency in Mitigation and Adaptation Responses. Springer; 2013.
A chapter in an edited book
1.
Bradley RE, Sandifer CE. Determination of integer functions, when a certain number of particular values are known. Applications. In: Sandifer CE, ed. Cauchy’s Cours d’analyse: An Annotated Translation. Springer; 2009:59-70.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for The Journal of Thoracic and Cardiovascular Surgery.

Blog post
1.
Hale T. Here’s Why You Should Be Sleeping Naked. IFLScience. Published August 31, 2016. Accessed October 30, 2018. https://www.iflscience.com/health-and-medicine/here-s-why-you-should-be-sleeping-naked/

Reports

This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
1.
Government Accountability Office. APHIS: Solid Wood Packing Material From China. U.S. Government Printing Office; 1998.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
1.
Seymour CR. Natives Versus Exotics and Grasses Versus Forbs: A Long-Term Study of Vegetation in La Jolla Valley. Published online 2017.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
1.
Hodara S. A Show Meant to Provoke Double Takes. New York Times. February 22, 2015:WE8.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in superscript:

This sentence cites one reference 1.
This sentence cites two references 1,2.
This sentence cites four references 1–4.

About the journal

Full journal titleThe Journal of Thoracic and Cardiovascular Surgery
AbbreviationJ. Thorac. Cardiovasc. Surg.
ISSN (print)0022-5223
ScopeCardiology and Cardiovascular Medicine
Pulmonary and Respiratory Medicine
Surgery

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