How to format your references using the Open Geospatial Data, Software and Standards citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Open Geospatial Data, Software and Standards. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
1. Snoke D. Spontaneous Bose coherence of excitons and polaritons. Science. 2002;298:1368–72.
A journal article with 2 authors
1. Li W, Chetelat RT. A pollen factor linking inter- and intraspecific pollen rejection in tomato. Science. 2010;330:1827–30.
A journal article with 3 authors
1. Skipper M, Weiss U, Gray N. Plasticity. Nature. 2010;465:703.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
1. Erbacher J, Huber BT, Norris RD, Markey M. Increased thermohaline stratification as a possible cause for an ocean anoxic event in the Cretaceous period. Nature. 2001;409:325–7.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
1. Janovy J, Esch GW. A Century of Parasitology. Chichester, UK: John Wiley & Sons, Ltd; 2016.
An edited book
1. Saranto K, Castrén M, Kuusela T, Hyrynsalmi S, Ojala S, editors. Safe and Secure Cities: 5th International Conference on Well-Being in the Information Society, WIS 2014, Turku, Finland, August 18-20, 2014. Proceedings. Cham: Springer International Publishing; 2014.
A chapter in an edited book
1. Mutanda T, Ramesh D, Anandraj A, Bux F. Sustainable Biodiesel Production Using Wastewater Streams and Microalgae in South Africa. In: Gurib-Fakim A, Eloff JN, editors. Chemistry for Sustainable Development in Africa. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer; 2013. p. 49–67.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Open Geospatial Data, Software and Standards.

Blog post
1. Andrew E. Watch The Test Flight Launch of the Deep-Space Orion Spacecraft [Internet]. IFLScience. IFLScience; 2014 [cited 2018 Oct 30]. Available from:


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
1. Government Accountability Office. Maritime Administration: Stronger Management Controls Needed Over Vessels in Title XI Custody. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office; 1992 May. Report No.: RCED-92-147.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
1. Havill NL. Therapeutic landscapes for birth: A research synthesis [Doctoral dissertation]. [Chapel Hill, NC]: University of North Carolina; 2012.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
1. Williams J. New Ways to Woo Jaded Consumers. New York Times. 2017 Jun 18;C5.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleOpen Geospatial Data, Software and Standards
ISSN (online)2363-7501

Other styles