How to format your references using the The Journal of the Torrey Botanical Society citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for The Journal of the Torrey Botanical Society. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Beverley, S. M. 2015. Parasitology: CRISPR for Cryptosporidium. Nature 523:413–414.
A journal article with 2 authors
Raymond, P. A., and J. J. Cole. 2003. Increase in the export of alkalinity from North America’s largest river. Science 301:88–91.
A journal article with 3 authors
Whitmore, D., N. S. Foulkes, and P. Sassone-Corsi. 2000. Light acts directly on organs and cells in culture to set the vertebrate circadian clock. Nature 404:87–91.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Wang, M., W.-J. Bao, J. Wang, K. Wang, J.-J. Xu, H.-Y. Chen, and X.-H. Xia. 2014. A green approach to the synthesis of novel “Desert rose stone”-like nanobiocatalytic system with excellent enzyme activity and stability. Sci. Rep. 4:6606.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Bruen, G. O. 2015. WHOIS Running the Internet. John Wiley & Sons, Inc, Hoboken, NJ.
An edited book
Wang, L., and A. Y. C. Nee (Eds.). 2009. Collaborative Design and Planning for Digital Manufacturing. Springer, London.
A chapter in an edited book
Raymond-Yakoubian, J. 2016. Conceptual and Institutional Frameworks for Protected Areas, and the Status of Indigenous Involvement: Considerations for the Bering Strait Region of Alaska. Pages 83–103 In T. M. Herrmann and T. Martin [eds.], Indigenous Peoples’ Governance of Land and Protected Territories in the Arctic. Springer International Publishing, Cham.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for The Journal of the Torrey Botanical Society.

Blog post
Fang, J. 2015, March 18. Crystal with “Forbidden Symmetry” Found in 4.5-Billion-Year-Old Meteorite. Retrieved October 30, 2018, from IFLScience. <>.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. 1996. Security Weaknesses at IRS’ Cyberfile Data Center. U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Burnias, M. P. 2014. A qualitative study of familial factors that contribute to a positive coming out process. Doctoral dissertation, Pepperdine University, Malibu, CA.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Wines, M., and J. Bosman. 2017, May 14. A ‘Passionate’ Seeker of Voter Fraud in Kansas Gets a National Soapbox. New York Times:A12.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Beverley 2015).
This sentence cites two references (Beverley 2015, Raymond and Cole 2003).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Raymond and Cole 2003)
  • Three or more authors: (Wang et al. 2014)

About the journal

Full journal titleThe Journal of the Torrey Botanical Society
AbbreviationJ. Torrey Bot. Soc.
ISSN (print)1095-5674
ISSN (online)1940-0616
ScopeEcology, Evolution, Behavior and Systematics
Plant Science

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