How to format your references using the The Journal of the Torrey Botanical Society citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for The Journal of the Torrey Botanical Society. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Gill, G. N. 2002. A pit stop at the ER. Science 295:1654–1655.
A journal article with 2 authors
Velicogna, I., and J. Wahr. 2006. Measurements of time-variable gravity show mass loss in Antarctica. Science 311:1754–1756.
A journal article with 3 authors
Morse, S. S., R. L. Garwin, and P. J. Olsiewski. 2006. Public health. Next flu pandemic: what to do until the vaccine arrives? Science 314:929.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Bignami, G. F., P. A. Caraveo, A. De Luca, and S. Mereghetti. 2003. The magnetic field of an isolated neutron star from X-ray cyclotron absorption lines. Nature 423:725–727.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
McFedries, P. 2010. Twitter Tips, Tricks, and Tweets. Wiley Publishing, Inc., Indianapolis, IN, USA.
An edited book
Yoshimoto, Takayuki, and Tomohiro Yoshimoto (Eds.). 2014. Cytokine Frontiers: Regulation of Immune Responses in Health and Disease. Springer Japan, Tokyo.
A chapter in an edited book
Bolten, W. W. 2015. NSAIDs. Pages 63–69 In W. U. Kampen and M. Fischer [eds.], Local Treatment of Inflammatory Joint Diseases: Benefits and Risks. Springer International Publishing, Cham.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for The Journal of the Torrey Botanical Society.

Blog post
Luntz, S. 2017, January 9. Vaporized Comets Or Asteroids Detected Around A Young Star. Retrieved October 30, 2018, from IFLScience. <>.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. 2006. Federal Aviation Administration: An Analysis of the Financial Viability of the Airport and Airway Trust Fund. U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Roy Chowdhury, T. 2012. Tracking Carbon Flow during Methane Oxidation into Methanotrophs Using 13C-PLFA Labeling in Pulsing Freshwater Wetlands. Doctoral dissertation, Ohio State University, Columbus, OH.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Crow, K. 2002, October 6. A New 92nd Street Y? Almost. New York Times:144.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Gill 2002).
This sentence cites two references (Gill 2002, Velicogna and Wahr 2006).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Velicogna and Wahr 2006)
  • Three or more authors: (Bignami et al. 2003)

About the journal

Full journal titleThe Journal of the Torrey Botanical Society
AbbreviationJ. Torrey Bot. Soc.
ISSN (print)1095-5674
ISSN (online)1940-0616
ScopeEcology, Evolution, Behavior and Systematics
Plant Science

Other styles