How to format your references using the The Journal of the Torrey Botanical Society citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for The Journal of the Torrey Botanical Society. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Donley, E. A. 2013. Physics. A view on energy transfer between cold atoms. Science 342:942–943.
A journal article with 2 authors
Lu, Q., and G. Lemke. 2001. Homeostatic regulation of the immune system by receptor tyrosine kinases of the Tyro 3 family. Science 293:306–311.
A journal article with 3 authors
Saikia, A., D. J. Frost, and D. C. Rubie. 2008. Splitting of the 520-kilometer seismic discontinuity and chemical heterogeneity in the mantle. Science 319:1515–1518.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Yuan, Z.-L., Y.-J. Guan, D. Chatterjee, and Y. E. Chin. 2005. Stat3 dimerization regulated by reversible acetylation of a single lysine residue. Science 307:269–273.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
O’Malley, C. 2014. Bonds Without Borders. John Wiley & Sons, Ltd, Chichester, UK.
An edited book
Vinh, P. C., and L. Barolli (Eds.). 2016. Nature of Computation and Communication: Second International Conference, ICTCC 2016, Rach Gia, Vietnam, March 17-18, 2016, Revised Selected Papers. Springer International Publishing, Cham.
A chapter in an edited book
McLeod, K., T. Mansi, M. Sermesant, G. Pongiglione, and X. Pennec. 2013. Statistical Shape Analysis of Surfaces in Medical Images Applied to the Tetralogy of Fallot Heart. Pages 165–191 In F. Cazals and P. Kornprobst [eds.], Modeling in Computational Biology and Biomedicine: A Multidisciplinary Endeavor. Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for The Journal of the Torrey Botanical Society.

Blog post
Andrew, E. 2015, April 16. What Exactly Is Happening When Your Knuckles Crack? Retrieved October 30, 2018, from IFLScience. <>.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. 1998. Grant Programs: Design Features Shape Flexibility, Accountability, and Performance Information. U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Alsaadi, A. 2016. Smart smoke and fire detection with wireless and global system for mobile technology. Doctoral dissertation, California State University, Long Beach, Long Beach, CA.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Vecsey, G. 2010, May 30. A Gifted Talker Is Speaking Out. New York Times:SP2.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Donley 2013).
This sentence cites two references (Donley 2013, Lu and Lemke 2001).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Lu and Lemke 2001)
  • Three or more authors: (Yuan et al. 2005)

About the journal

Full journal titleThe Journal of the Torrey Botanical Society
AbbreviationJ. Torrey Bot. Soc.
ISSN (print)1095-5674
ISSN (online)1940-0616
ScopeEcology, Evolution, Behavior and Systematics
Plant Science

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