How to format your references using the The Journal of the Torrey Botanical Society citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for The Journal of the Torrey Botanical Society. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Greer, J. R. 2014. Chemistry. Nanoframe catalysts. Science 343:1319–1320.
A journal article with 2 authors
Krieger, M. J. B., and K. G. Ross. 2002. Identification of a major gene regulating complex social behavior. Science 295:328–332.
A journal article with 3 authors
Cincotta, R. P., J. Wisnewski, and R. Engelman. 2000. Human population in the biodiversity hotspots. Nature 404:990–992.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Wilkinson, J. J., B. Stoffell, C. C. Wilkinson, T. E. Jeffries, and M. S. Appold. 2009. Anomalously metal-rich fluids form hydrothermal ore deposits. Science 323:764–767.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Goossens, F. 2015. How to Implement Market Models Using VBA. John Wiley & Sons, Ltd, Chichester, UK.
An edited book
Ibragimov, N. H. 2009. Approximate and Renormgroup Symmetries. Page (V. F. Kovalev, Ed.). Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg.
A chapter in an edited book
Chakraborty, A., and A. Konar. 2009. Brain Imaging and Psycho-pathological Studies on Self-regulation of Emotion. Pages 93–132 In A. Konar [ed.], Emotional Intelligence: A Cybernetic Approach. Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for The Journal of the Torrey Botanical Society.

Blog post
Fang, J. 2014, October 29. Mini Human Stomachs Grown in the Lab. Retrieved October 30, 2018, from IFLScience. <>.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. 1977. NASA Report May Overstate the Economic Benefits of Research and Development Spending. U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Henry, M. E. 2009. A nutrition education program to change college dorm dwellers’ eating patterns. Doctoral dissertation, California State University, Long Beach, Long Beach, CA.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Dynarski, S. 2016, June 8. 왜 영재반에서는 흑인과 히스패닉 학생을 보기 힘들까? New York Times:BU6.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Greer 2014).
This sentence cites two references (Greer 2014, Krieger and Ross 2002).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Krieger and Ross 2002)
  • Three or more authors: (Wilkinson et al. 2009)

About the journal

Full journal titleThe Journal of the Torrey Botanical Society
AbbreviationJ. Torrey Bot. Soc.
ISSN (print)1095-5674
ISSN (online)1940-0616
ScopeEcology, Evolution, Behavior and Systematics
Plant Science

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