How to format your references using the The Journal of the Torrey Botanical Society citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for The Journal of the Torrey Botanical Society. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Shell, K. M. 2012. Climate change. Constraining cloud feedbacks. Science 338:755–756.
A journal article with 2 authors
Headlam, D., and M. Brown. 2007. Comment on “The geometry of musical chords.” Science 315:330; author reply 330.
A journal article with 3 authors
Grevemeyer, I., R. Herber, and H. H. Essen. 2000. Microseismological evidence for a changing wave climate in the northeast Atlantic Ocean. Nature 408:349–352.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Musser, R. O., S. M. Hum-Musser, H. Eichenseer, M. Peiffer, G. Ervin, J. B. Murphy, and G. W. Felton. 2002. Herbivory: caterpillar saliva beats plant defences. Nature 416:599–600.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
The American Ceramic Society. 2009. Progress in Nanotechnology. John Wiley & Sons, Inc., Hoboken, NJ.
An edited book
Mohammed, S., J. C. Moreno, K. Kong, and Y. Amirat (Eds.). 2015. Intelligent Assistive Robots: Recent Advances in Assistive Robotics for Everyday Activities. Springer International Publishing, Cham.
A chapter in an edited book
Kerres, J. 2016. Applications of Acid–Base Blend Concepts to Intermediate Temperature Membranes. Pages 59–89 In Q. Li, D. Aili, H. A. Hjuler, and J. O. Jensen [eds.], High Temperature Polymer Electrolyte Membrane Fuel Cells: Approaches, Status, and Perspectives. Springer International Publishing, Cham.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for The Journal of the Torrey Botanical Society.

Blog post
Fang, J. 2015, October 16. How To Predict The Ratio Of Males To Females In Wild Animals.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. 1983. Implications of Joint NASA/DOD Participation in Space Shuttle Operations. U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Schroder, G. L. 2015. A quantitative study of critical thinking skills in bachelors of science nursing program students. Doctoral dissertation, University of Phoenix, Phoenix, AZ.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Sisario, B. 2017, September 7. Milestone for BMI: More Than $1 Billion in Music Royalties. New York Times:B3.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Shell 2012).
This sentence cites two references (Headlam and Brown 2007, Shell 2012).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Headlam and Brown 2007)
  • Three or more authors: (Musser et al. 2002)

About the journal

Full journal titleThe Journal of the Torrey Botanical Society
AbbreviationJ. Torrey Bot. Soc.
ISSN (print)1095-5674
ISSN (online)1940-0616
ScopeEcology, Evolution, Behavior and Systematics
Plant Science

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