How to format your references using the The Journal of the Torrey Botanical Society citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for The Journal of the Torrey Botanical Society. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Powell, K. 2004. Stipend survival. Nature 428:102–103.
A journal article with 2 authors
Cloetingh, S., and B. U. Haq. 2015. Sea level change. Inherited landscapes and sea level change. Science 347:1258375.
A journal article with 3 authors
Zákány, J., M. Kmita, and D. Duboule. 2004. A dual role for Hox genes in limb anterior-posterior asymmetry. Science 304:1669–1672.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Clancy, D. J., D. Gems, L. G. Harshman, S. Oldham, H. Stocker, E. Hafen, S. J. Leevers, and L. Partridge. 2001. Extension of life-span by loss of CHICO, a Drosophila insulin receptor substrate protein. Science 292:104–106.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Bragg, S. M. 2009. Controllership. John Wiley & Sons, Inc., Hoboken, NJ.
An edited book
Padmanabhan, T. (Ed.). 2014. Astronomy in India: A Historical Perspective. Springer India, New Delhi.
A chapter in an edited book
Lin, Z., and Z. Bai. 2011. Probability Inequalities of Random Variables. Pages 37–50 In Z. Bai [ed.], Probability Inequalities. Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for The Journal of the Torrey Botanical Society.

Blog post
Hamilton, K. 2014, September 16. What Hurts More: Childbirth Or Getting Kicked In The Balls? Retrieved October 30, 2018, from IFLScience. <>.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. 1970. Review of Accountable Officers’ Accounts, Minneapolis Postal Data Center. U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Sontag, M. 2006. Emotion and the Labeling Process. Doctoral dissertation, University of Cincinnati, Cincinnati, OH.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Detrick, B. 2017, April 11. The Flower Shop. New York Times:D6.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Powell 2004).
This sentence cites two references (Cloetingh and Haq 2015, Powell 2004).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Cloetingh and Haq 2015)
  • Three or more authors: (Clancy et al. 2001)

About the journal

Full journal titleThe Journal of the Torrey Botanical Society
AbbreviationJ. Torrey Bot. Soc.
ISSN (print)1095-5674
ISSN (online)1940-0616
ScopeEcology, Evolution, Behavior and Systematics
Plant Science

Other styles