How to format your references using the Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology, Part C citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology, Part C. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Lovelock, J., 2003. Gaia: the living Earth. Nature 426, 769–770.
A journal article with 2 authors
Kelley, D.H., Ouellette, N.T., 2013. Emergent dynamics of laboratory insect swarms. Sci. Rep. 3, 1073.
A journal article with 3 authors
Beekman, M., Calis, J.N., Boot, W.J., 2000. Parasitic honeybees get royal treatment. Nature 404, 723.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Molina-Heredia, F.P., Wastl, J., Navarro, J.A., Bendall, D.S., Hervás, M., Howe, C.J., De La Rosa, M.A., 2003. Photosynthesis: a new function for an old cytochrome? Nature 424, 33–34.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Cantrell, R.S., Cosner, C., 2004. Spatial Ecology via Reaction-Diffusion Equations. John Wiley & Sons, Ltd, Chichester, UK.
An edited book
Kowalczuk, Z., 2014. Advanced Modeling of Management Processes in Information Technology, Studies in Computational Intelligence. Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg.
A chapter in an edited book
Akanda, M.M., Abderazek, B.A., Sowa, M., 2006. On the Design of a Dual-Execution Modes Processor: Architecture and Preliminary Evaluation, in: Min, G., Martino, B.D., Yang, L.T., Guo, M., Rünger, G. (Eds.), Frontiers of High Performance Computing and Networking – ISPA 2006 Workshops: ISPA 2006 International Workshops, FHPCN, XHPC, S-GRACE, GridGIS, HPC-GTP, PDCE, ParDMCom, WOMP, ISDF, and UPWN, Sorrento, Italy, December 4-7, 2006. Proceedings, Lecture Notes in Computer Science. Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg, pp. 37–46.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology, Part C.

Blog post
Taub, B., 2016. Caffeine May Protect Older Women From Dementia [WWW Document]. IFLScience. URL (accessed 10.30.18).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office, 2007. Railroad Safety--Responses to Posthearing Questions (No. GAO-07-610R). U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Miller, C.K., 2006. Incidence and Characterization of Oral Motor, Pharyngeal, and Cervical Esophageal Swallowing Dysfunction in Pediatric Patients with Chiari 1 Malformation (Doctoral dissertation). University of Cincinnati, Cincinnati, OH.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Kovaleski, S.F., Moynihan, C., 2015. Well Before Scandals, Cosby’s Wife Faulted Media Treatment of Blacks. New York Times C1.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Lovelock, 2003).
This sentence cites two references (Kelley and Ouellette, 2013; Lovelock, 2003).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Kelley and Ouellette, 2013)
  • Three or more authors: (Molina-Heredia et al., 2003)

About the journal

Full journal titleComparative Biochemistry and Physiology, Part C
AbbreviationComp. Biochem. Physiol. C. Toxicol. Pharmacol.
ISSN (print)1532-0456
Cell Biology
Health, Toxicology and Mutagenesis
General Medicine

Other styles