How to format your references using the Microbial Ecology citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Microbial Ecology. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
1.
Warren WS (2001) Nuclear magnetic resonance. Multidimensional symmetry in a three-dimensional world. Science 294:1475–1476
A journal article with 2 authors
1.
Liu Y, Daum PH (2002) Anthropogenic aerosols. Indirect warming effect from dispersion forcing. Nature 419:580–581
A journal article with 3 authors
1.
Karlseder J, Smogorzewska A, de Lange T (2002) Senescence induced by altered telomere state, not telomere loss. Science 295:2446–2449
A journal article with 5 or more authors
1.
Zhang Z, Shen J, Wang H, et al (2014) Attenuation of veterinary antibiotics in full-scale vermicomposting of swine manure via the housefly larvae (Musca domestica). Sci Rep 4:6844

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
1.
Center for Chemical Process Safety (2010) Layer of Protection Analysis. John Wiley & Sons, Inc., Hoboken, NJ
An edited book
1.
Waterworth J (2016) Human-Experiential Design of Presence in Everyday Blended Reality: Living in the Here and Now. Springer International Publishing, Cham
A chapter in an edited book
1.
Boukas E-K, AL-Sunni FM (2012) Analysis Based on Transfer Function. In: AL-Sunni FM (ed) Mechatronic Systems: Analysis, Design and Implementation. Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg, pp 73–127

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Microbial Ecology.

Blog post
1.
Hamilton K (2016) How We Caught A Glimpse Of A Supermassive Black Hole Having A Meal. In: IFLScience. Accessed 30 Oct 2018

Reports

This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
1.
Government Accountability Office (2015) Air Traffic Control: FAA Needs a More Comprehensive Approach to Address Cybersecurity As Agency Transitions to NextGen. U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
1.
Dotson KT (2009) Smoke points of microgravity and normal gravity coflow diffusion flames. Doctoral dissertation, University of Maryland, College Park

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
1.
Tomasky M (2017) The Silence of the Democrats. New York Times A19

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1, 2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleMicrobial Ecology
AbbreviationMicrob. Ecol.
ISSN (print)0095-3628
ISSN (online)1432-184X
ScopeEcology, Evolution, Behavior and Systematics
Soil Science
Ecology

Other styles