How to format your references using the European Orthopaedics and Traumatology citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for European Orthopaedics and Traumatology. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Dahl-Jensen D (2000) CLIMATE CHANGE: Enhanced: The Greenland Ice Sheet Reacts. Science 289:404–405
A journal article with 2 authors
Watson R, Pauly D (2001) Systematic distortions in world fisheries catch trends. Nature 414:534–536
A journal article with 3 authors
Juanes-Marcos JC, Althorpe SC, Wrede E (2005) Theoretical study of geometric phase effects in the hydrogen-exchange reaction. Science 309:1227–1230
A journal article with 5 or more authors
Palmer TD, Schwartz PH, Taupin P, et al (2001) Cell culture. Progenitor cells from human brain after death. Nature 411:42–43

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Chappell D (2008) The JCT Intermediate Building Contracts 2005. Blackwell Publishing, Oxford, UK
An edited book
Dodds S, Ankeny RA (2016) Big Picture Bioethics: Developing Democratic Policy in Contested Domains. Springer International Publishing, Cham
A chapter in an edited book
Said H, Dessouky M, El-Adawi R, et al (2011) Analog Layout Retargeting. In: Graeb HE (ed) Analog Layout Synthesis: A Survey of Topological Approaches. Springer US, Boston, MA, pp 205–242

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for European Orthopaedics and Traumatology.

Blog post
Andrews R (2016) Controversial GM Food Labeling Bill Approved By US Senate. In: IFLScience. Accessed 30 Oct 2018


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office (1991) Diffusing Innovations: Implementing the Technology Transfer Act of 1986. U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Griffin JC (2012) Animal and soul: Animals in Native American mythologies and the individuation process. Doctoral dissertation, Pacifica Graduate Institute

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Hartocollis A (2014) And Surrogacy Makes 3. New York Times E1

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1, 2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleEuropean Orthopaedics and Traumatology
AbbreviationEur. Orthop. Traumatol.
ISSN (print)1867-4569
ISSN (online)1867-4577
ScopePublic Health, Environmental and Occupational Health

Other styles