How to format your references using the European Orthopaedics and Traumatology citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for European Orthopaedics and Traumatology. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Goldston D (2009) Budget instructions. Nature 461:25
A journal article with 2 authors
Symington LS, Holloman WK (2004) Molecular biology. New Year’s resolution--resolving resolvases. Science 303:184–185
A journal article with 3 authors
Whiteman G, Hope C, Wadhams P (2013) Vast costs of Arctic change. Nature 499:401–403
A journal article with 5 or more authors
Elde NC, Child SJ, Geballe AP, Malik HS (2009) Protein kinase R reveals an evolutionary model for defeating viral mimicry. Nature 457:485–489

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Alberty RA (2006) Biochemical Thermodynamics: Applications of Mathmatica. John Wiley & Sons, Inc., Hoboken, NJ
An edited book
Burckhardt P, Dawson-Hughes B, Weaver CM (2013) Nutritional Influences on Bone Health: 8th International Symposium. Springer, London
A chapter in an edited book
Eastburn DM, D’Arcy CJ (2010) Scholarship of Teaching and Learning (SoTL) Projects in Plant Pathology. In: Hardwick N, Gullino ML (eds) Knowledge and Technology Transfer for Plant Pathology. Springer Netherlands, Dordrecht, pp 45–53

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for European Orthopaedics and Traumatology.

Blog post
Andrew E (2015) Cancer Drug Promises To Break Down Barrier To HIV Cure. In: IFLScience. Accessed 30 Oct 2018


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office (1980) The Near-Term Potential of Manufacturing in Space. U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Gruhl DK (2010) Santa Rosa Adopt-A-Grandparent Plus program: A grant proposal project. Doctoral dissertation, California State University, Long Beach

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Wagner J (2016) Syndergaard, Last Man Standing, Is Natural Choice for Survival Game. New York Times B9

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1, 2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleEuropean Orthopaedics and Traumatology
AbbreviationEur. Orthop. Traumatol.
ISSN (print)1867-4569
ISSN (online)1867-4577
ScopePublic Health, Environmental and Occupational Health

Other styles