How to format your references using the European Orthopaedics and Traumatology citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for European Orthopaedics and Traumatology. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Moses M (2009) Being human: engineering: worldwide ebb. Nature 457:660–661
A journal article with 2 authors
Li G-W, Xie XS (2011) Central dogma at the single-molecule level in living cells. Nature 475:308–315
A journal article with 3 authors
Toope SJ, Tan CC, Fedoroff NV (2012) Science in Asia. Improving Asia-Pacific science collaboration. Science 336:38–39
A journal article with 5 or more authors
Mok KH, Kuhn LT, Goez M, et al (2007) A pre-existing hydrophobic collapse in the unfolded state of an ultrafast folding protein. Nature 447:106–109

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Institute of Management and Administration (IOMA) (2012) Cost Reduction and Control Best Practices. John Wiley & Sons, Inc., Hoboken, NJ
An edited book
Pandolfo I (2013) Orthopantomography. Springer, Milano
A chapter in an edited book
Abdel-Shafy HI, Guindi KA, Tawfik NS (2008) Groundwater Contamination as Affected by Long-Term Sewage Irrigation in Egypt. In: Baz IA, Otterpohl R, Wendland C (eds) Efficient Management of Wastewater: Its Treatment and Reuse in Water-Scarce Countries. Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg, pp 53–63

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for European Orthopaedics and Traumatology.

Blog post
Carpineti A (2017) Scientists Can Now Do Quantum Hacking. In: IFLScience. Accessed 30 Oct 2018


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office (1997) National Airspace System: Questions Concerning FAA’s Wide Area Augmentation System. U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Matta Veera Venkata S (2015) Ensuring security and authentication using zero knowledge protocol in wireless sensor network applications. Doctoral dissertation, California State University, Long Beach

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Walsh MW (2016) A Sour Surprise for Public Pensions. New York Times BU1

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1, 2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleEuropean Orthopaedics and Traumatology
AbbreviationEur. Orthop. Traumatol.
ISSN (print)1867-4569
ISSN (online)1867-4577
ScopePublic Health, Environmental and Occupational Health

Other styles