How to format your references using the The Journal of Prosthetic Dentistry citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for The Journal of Prosthetic Dentistry. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Moncada S. Obituary: John R. Vane (1927-2004). Nature. 2005 Jan 6;433(7021):28.
A journal article with 2 authors
Polyak VJ, Asmerom Y. Late Holocene climate and cultural changes in the southwestern United States. Science. 2001 Oct 5;294(5540):148–51.
A journal article with 3 authors
Hu Z-X, Lan H, Ji W. Role of the dispersion force in modeling the interfacial properties of molecule-metal interfaces: adsorption of thiophene on copper surfaces. Sci Rep. 2014 May 22;4:5036.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
Freedman B, Bartal G, Segev M, Lifshitz R, Christodoulides DN, Fleischer JW. Wave and defect dynamics in nonlinear photonic quasicrystals. Nature. 2006 Apr 27;440(7088):1166–9.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Asif SZ. Next Generation Mobile Communications Ecosystem. Chichester, UK: John Wiley & Sons, Ltd; 2010.
An edited book
Gorton I, Heineman GT, Crnković I, Schmidt HW, Stafford JA, Szyperski C, et al., editors. Component-Based Software Engineering: 9th International Symposium, CBSE 2006, Västerås, Sweden, June 29 - July 1, 2006. Proceedings. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer; 2006. XII, 396 p. (Lecture Notes in Computer Science; vol. 4063).
A chapter in an edited book
Fukino N, Kawazu Y. DNA Markers in Cucurbitaceae Breeding. In: Ezura H, Ariizumi T, Garcia-Mas J, Rose J, editors. Functional Genomics and Biotechnology in Solanaceae and Cucurbitaceae Crops. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer; 2016. p. 59–74. (Biotechnology in Agriculture and Forestry).

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for The Journal of Prosthetic Dentistry.

Blog post
Andrew E. How To Make A Mini Rocketship With A Match And Some Tinfoil [Internet]. IFLScience. IFLScience; 2014 [cited 2018 Oct 30]. Available from:


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. Problems in Providing Education Overseas for Dependents of U.S. Personnel. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office; 1974 Sep. Report No.: B-131587.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Allen EL. Teacher Evaluation and Student Achievement in Elementary Education [Doctoral dissertation]. [ St. Charles, MO]: Lindenwood University; 2015.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Wagner J. DeGrom Bounces Back in Style, but Cespedes Exits With Soreness. New York Times. 2017 Jun 13;B10.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in superscript:

This sentence cites one reference 1.
This sentence cites two references 1,2.
This sentence cites four references 1–4.

About the journal

Full journal titleThe Journal of Prosthetic Dentistry
AbbreviationJ. Prosthet. Dent.
ISSN (print)0022-3913
ISSN (online)1097-6841
ScopeOral Surgery

Other styles