How to format your references using the The Journal of Prosthetic Dentistry citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for The Journal of Prosthetic Dentistry. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Walsh CT. Polyketide and nonribosomal peptide antibiotics: modularity and versatility. Science. 2004 Mar 19;303(5665):1805–10.
A journal article with 2 authors
Gao YQ, Marcus RA. Strange and unconventional isotope effects in ozone formation. Science. 2001 Jul 13;293(5528):259–63.
A journal article with 3 authors
Nelson WA, Bjørnstad ON, Yamanaka T. Recurrent insect outbreaks caused by temperature-driven changes in system stability. Science. 2013 Aug 16;341(6147):796–9.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
Schall D, Otto M, Neumaier D, Kurz H. Integrated Ring Oscillators based on high-performance Graphene Inverters. Sci Rep. 2013;3:2592.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Smith V. Toni Morrison. Chichester, UK: John Wiley & Sons, Ltd; 2012.
An edited book
Clerici F. Il corpo in vetrina: Cura, immagine, benessere, consumo tra scienza dell’alimentazione e filosofia. Vanotti A, Gabrielli F, editors. Milano: Springer; 2010. X, 92 pagg.
A chapter in an edited book
Mumdžiev N. Allocation of Decision Rights in International Franchise Firms: The Case of Master and Direct Franchising. In: Tuunanen M, Windsperger J, Cliquet G, Hendrikse G, editors. New Developments in the Theory of Networks: Franchising, Alliances and Cooperatives. Heidelberg: Physica-Verlag HD; 2011. p. 45–58. (Contributions to Management Science).

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for The Journal of Prosthetic Dentistry.

Blog post
Fang J. Even Antarctica’s Stable Ice is Melting Fast [Internet]. IFLScience. IFLScience; 2015 [cited 2018 Oct 30]. Available from:


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. Space Acquisitions: Committing Prematurely to the Transformational Satellite Program Elevates Risks for Poor Cost, Schedule, and Performance Outcomes. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office; 2003 Dec. Report No.: GAO-04-71R.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Wasserman MM. Psychological Symptoms, Family Functioning, and Religious Coping in Second- and Third-Generation Holocaust Survivors [Doctoral dissertation]. [Malibu, CA]: Pepperdine University; 2017.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Branch J. Leader of U.S. Governing Body Resigns as Scandal Spreads. New York Times. 2017 Mar 16;B9.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in superscript:

This sentence cites one reference 1.
This sentence cites two references 1,2.
This sentence cites four references 1–4.

About the journal

Full journal titleThe Journal of Prosthetic Dentistry
AbbreviationJ. Prosthet. Dent.
ISSN (print)0022-3913
ISSN (online)1097-6841
ScopeOral Surgery

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