How to format your references using the The Journal of Prosthetic Dentistry citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for The Journal of Prosthetic Dentistry. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Sassone-Corsi P. Physiology. When metabolism and epigenetics converge. Science. 2013 Jan 11;339(6116):148–50.
A journal article with 2 authors
Karplus PA, Diederichs K. Linking crystallographic model and data quality. Science. 2012 May 25;336(6084):1030–3.
A journal article with 3 authors
Evans WJ, Kozimor SA, Ziller JW. Molecular octa-uranium rings with alternating nitride and azide bridges. Science. 2005 Sep 16;309(5742):1835–8.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
Wang X, Guerin G, Wang H, Wang Y, Manners I, Winnik MA. Cylindrical block copolymer micelles and co-micelles of controlled length and architecture. Science. 2007 Aug 3;317(5838):644–7.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Johnson JL. Probability and Statistics for Computer Science. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.; 1997.
An edited book
Bailly C. Turbulence. Comte-Bellot G, editor. Cham: Springer International Publishing; 2015. XX, 360 p. 147 illus., 3 illus. in color. (Experimental Fluid Mechanics).
A chapter in an edited book
Barton G. Reflective Practice in Music: A Collaborative Professional Approach. In: Ryan ME, editor. Teaching Reflective Learning in Higher Education: A Systematic Approach Using Pedagogic Patterns. Cham: Springer International Publishing; 2015. p. 65–76.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for The Journal of Prosthetic Dentistry.

Blog post
Andrew E. Man Receives First Scalp And Skull Transplant [Internet]. IFLScience. IFLScience; 2015 [cited 2018 Oct 30]. Available from:


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. Head Start: Research Provides Little Information on Impact of Current Program. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office; 1997 Apr. Report No.: HEHS-97-59.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Piper MH. A Study of the Effectiveness of Alternative Schools through an Examination of Graduation Rates, School Climate, Student Motivation, and Academic Rigor [Doctoral dissertation]. [ St. Charles, MO]: Lindenwood University; 2017.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Hiltner S, Lehman S. Finding an Expansive View of a Forgotten People in Niger. New York Times. 2017 Apr 1;A2.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in superscript:

This sentence cites one reference 1.
This sentence cites two references 1,2.
This sentence cites four references 1–4.

About the journal

Full journal titleThe Journal of Prosthetic Dentistry
AbbreviationJ. Prosthet. Dent.
ISSN (print)0022-3913
ISSN (online)1097-6841
ScopeOral Surgery

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