How to format your references using the Child Indicators Research citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Child Indicators Research. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Zheludev, N. I. (2015). Applied physics. Obtaining optical properties on demand. Science (New York, N.Y.), 348(6238), 973–974.
A journal article with 2 authors
Lazazzera, B. A., & Hughes, D. (2015). Genetics: Location affects sporulation. Nature, 525(7567), 42–43.
A journal article with 3 authors
Sang, L., Coller, H. A., & Roberts, J. M. (2008). Control of the reversibility of cellular quiescence by the transcriptional repressor HES1. Science (New York, N.Y.), 321(5892), 1095–1100.
A journal article with 8 or more authors
Haramis, A.-P. G., Begthel, H., van den Born, M., van Es, J., Jonkheer, S., Offerhaus, G. J. A., & Clevers, H. (2004). De novo crypt formation and juvenile polyposis on BMP inhibition in mouse intestine. Science (New York, N.Y.), 303(5664), 1684–1686.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Abulencia, J. P., & Theodore, L. (2015). Open-Ended Problems. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
An edited book
Zhiltsov, S. S., Zonn, I. S., & Kostianoy, A. G. (Eds.). (2016). Oil and Gas Pipelines in the Black-Caspian Seas Region (Vol. 51). Cham: Springer International Publishing.
A chapter in an edited book
Wang, H., Zheng, D., & Cui, E. (2014). The Empirical Analysis of Shandong Province’s Urbanization Level. In D. Yang & Y. Qian (Eds.), Proceedings of the 18th International Symposium on Advancement of Construction Management and Real Estate (pp. 41–47). Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Child Indicators Research.

Blog post
Carpineti, A. (2017, March 28). Astronomers Finally See The Faint Swirling Halo Surrounding An Active Galaxy. IFLScience. IFLScience. Accessed 30 October 2018


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. (1990). FAA Procurement: Major Data-Processing Contract Should Not Be Awarded (No. IMTEC-90-38). Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Hrivnak, G. A. (2009). Extending a model of leader -member exchange development: Individual and dyadic effects of personality, similarity and liking (Doctoral dissertation). George Washington University, Washington, DC.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Feeney, K. (2008, November 16). Home Is Where The Food Is Grown. New York Times, p. NJ1.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Zheludev 2015).
This sentence cites two references (Lazazzera and Hughes 2015; Zheludev 2015).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Lazazzera and Hughes 2015)
  • Three or more authors: (Haramis et al. 2004)

About the journal

Full journal titleChild Indicators Research
AbbreviationChild Indic. Res.
ISSN (print)1874-897X
ISSN (online)1874-8988
ScopeSocial Psychology
Health(social science)
Sociology and Political Science

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