How to format your references using the Child Indicators Research citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Child Indicators Research. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Gimalac, A. (2004). Recruiters and industry. Building biostatistics. Nature, 430(6996), 276.
A journal article with 2 authors
Lowell, T. V., & Kelly, M. A. (2008). Climate. Was the Younger Dryas global? Science (New York, N.Y.), 321(5887), 348–349.
A journal article with 3 authors
Mugnier, M. R., Cross, G. A. M., & Papavasiliou, F. N. (2015). The in vivo dynamics of antigenic variation in Trypanosoma brucei. Science (New York, N.Y.), 347(6229), 1470–1473.
A journal article with 8 or more authors
Albert, B. B., Derraik, J. G. B., Brennan, C. M., Biggs, J. B., Smith, G. C., Garg, M. L., et al. (2014). Higher omega-3 index is associated with increased insulin sensitivity and more favourable metabolic profile in middle-aged overweight men. Scientific reports, 4, 6697.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Calloway, J. (2007). Work Like You’re Showing Off! Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
An edited book
Bilimoria, K. Y., Minami, C. A., & Mahvi, D. M. (Eds.). (2015). Comparative Effectiveness in Surgical Oncology: Key Questions and How to Answer Them (Vol. 164). Cham: Springer International Publishing.
A chapter in an edited book
Vistulo de Abreu, F., Nolte‘Hoen, E. N. M., Almeida, C. R., & Davis, D. M. (2006). Cellular Frustration: A New Conceptual Framework for Understanding Cell-Mediated Immune Responses. In H. Bersini & J. Carneiro (Eds.), Artificial Immune Systems: 5th International Conference, ICARIS 2006, Oeiras, Portugal, September 4-6, 2006. Proceedings (pp. 37–51). Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Child Indicators Research.

Blog post
Luntz, S. (2014, October 31). Five Reasons Bats Really Are Scary, and One Why They Aren’t. IFLScience. IFLScience. Accessed 30 October 2018


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. (2015). Indian Affairs: Preliminary Results Show Continued Challenges to the Oversight and Support of Education Facilities (No. GAO-15-389T). Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Wolodkowicz, R. (2008). Leadership qualities and employee-student future intentions (Doctoral dissertation). University of Phoenix, Phoenix, AZ.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.
New York Times article
Yeh, J. (2016, December 1). Little Moments. New York Times, p. BR44.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Gimalac 2004).
This sentence cites two references (Gimalac 2004; Lowell and Kelly 2008).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Lowell and Kelly 2008)
  • Three or more authors: (Albert et al. 2014)

About the journal

Full journal titleChild Indicators Research
AbbreviationChild Indic. Res.
ISSN (print)1874-897X
ISSN (online)1874-8988
ScopeSocial Psychology
Health(social science)
Sociology and Political Science

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