How to format your references using the Child Indicators Research citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Child Indicators Research. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Winzeler, E. A. (2008). Malaria research in the post-genomic era. Nature, 455(7214), 751–756.
A journal article with 2 authors
Krupalnik, V., & Hanna, J. H. (2014). Stem cells: The quest for the perfect reprogrammed cell. Nature, 511(7508), 160–162.
A journal article with 3 authors
Boisvert, C. A., Mark-Kurik, E., & Ahlberg, P. E. (2008). The pectoral fin of Panderichthys and the origin of digits. Nature, 456(7222), 636–638.
A journal article with 8 or more authors
Seo, H. S., Yang, J.-Y., Ishikawa, M., Bolle, C., Ballesteros, M. L., & Chua, N.-H. (2003). LAF1 ubiquitination by COP1 controls photomorphogenesis and is stimulated by SPA1. Nature, 423(6943), 995–999.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Smith, G. S. (2013). Straight to the Top. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
An edited book
Lakhani, S. R., & Fox, S. B. (Eds.). (2016). Molecular Pathology in Cancer Research. New York, NY: Springer.
A chapter in an edited book
Piroi, F., & Zenz, V. (2011). Evaluating Information Retrieval in the Intellectual Property Domain: The Clef–Ip Campaign. In M. Lupu, K. Mayer, J. Tait, & A. J. Trippe (Eds.), Current Challenges in Patent Information Retrieval (pp. 87–108). Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Child Indicators Research.

Blog post
Andrew, E. (2015, May 26). Watch This Ex-Circus Lion Feel Grass For The First Time. IFLScience. IFLScience. Accessed 30 October 2018


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. (2012). Social Security Administration: Improved Planning and Performance Measures Are Needed to Help Ensure Successful Technology Modernization (No. GAO-12-495). Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Thomas, E. M. (2016). Perceptions of educational leaders’ efficacy and leadership capacity upon preliminary administrative credential completion at California State University, Long Beach (Doctoral dissertation). California State University, Long Beach, Long Beach, CA.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Rothenberg, B. (2017, July 1). Kvitova Keeps Expectations Low, Even if Oddsmakers Disagree. New York Times, p. SP7.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Winzeler 2008).
This sentence cites two references (Krupalnik and Hanna 2014; Winzeler 2008).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Krupalnik and Hanna 2014)
  • Three or more authors: (Seo et al. 2003)

About the journal

Full journal titleChild Indicators Research
AbbreviationChild Indic. Res.
ISSN (print)1874-897X
ISSN (online)1874-8988
ScopeSocial Psychology
Health(social science)
Sociology and Political Science

Other styles