How to format your references using the The Journal of Primary Prevention citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for The Journal of Primary Prevention. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Keil, F. C. (2011). Psychology. Science starts early. Science (New York, N.Y.), 331(6020), 1022–1023.
A journal article with 2 authors
Stoltz, D. B., & Whitfield, J. B. (2009). Virology. Making nice with viruses. Science (New York, N.Y.), 323(5916), 884–885.
A journal article with 3 authors
Møller, P. R., Nielsen, J. G., & Fossen, I. (2003). Fish migration: Patagonian toothfish found off Greenland. Nature, 421(6923), 599.
A journal article with 8 or more authors
Thompson, J., Pisarczyk, R., Kurzyński, P., & Kaszlikowski, D. (2013). An experimental proposal for revealing contextuality in almost all qutrit states. Scientific reports, 3, 2706.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Fredriksson, H., & Åkerlind, U. (2012). Solidification and Crystallization Processing in Metals and Alloys. Chichester, UK: John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
An edited book
Almeida, J. B. (2011). Rigorous Software Development: An Introduction to Program Verification. (M. J. Frade, J. S. Pinto, & S. Melo de Sousa, Eds.). London: Springer.
A chapter in an edited book
Vijayaraghavan, S. B. (2007). Abdominal Hernias, Volvulus and Intussusception. In G. Maconi & G. B. Porro (Eds.), Ultrasound of the Gastrointestinal Tract (pp. 35–54). Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for The Journal of Primary Prevention.

Blog post
Carpineti, A. (2016, September 8). The Solar Neighborhood Might Be Full Of Brown Dwarfs. IFLScience. IFLScience. Accessed 30 October 2018


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. (1990). HHS ADP Procurement: Contracting and Market Share Information (No. IMTEC-90-87FS). Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Kramer, K. A. (2010). System for Identifying Plankton from the SIPPER Instrument Platform (Doctoral dissertation). University of South Florida, Tampa, FL.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Photographs by GEORGE ETHEREDGE for THE NEW YORK TIMES. (2017, March 31). Early Spring Flowers. New York Times, p. RE10.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Keil 2011).
This sentence cites two references (Keil 2011; Stoltz and Whitfield 2009).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Stoltz and Whitfield 2009)
  • Three or more authors: (Thompson et al. 2013)

About the journal

Full journal titleThe Journal of Primary Prevention
AbbreviationJ. Prim. Prev.
ISSN (print)0278-095X
ISSN (online)1573-6547
ScopePublic Health, Environmental and Occupational Health

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