How to format your references using the The Journal of Primary Prevention citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for The Journal of Primary Prevention. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Gewin, V. (2007). Hub of alternative energy. Nature, 446(7131), 106.
A journal article with 2 authors
Sigala, N., & Logothetis, N. K. (2002). Visual categorization shapes feature selectivity in the primate temporal cortex. Nature, 415(6869), 318–320.
A journal article with 3 authors
Marimuthu, A., Zhang, J., & Linic, S. (2013). Tuning selectivity in propylene epoxidation by plasmon mediated photo-switching of Cu oxidation state. Science (New York, N.Y.), 339(6127), 1590–1593.
A journal article with 8 or more authors
Schumer, M., Xu, C., Powell, D. L., Durvasula, A., Skov, L., Holland, C., et al. (2018). Natural selection interacts with recombination to shape the evolution of hybrid genomes. Science (New York, N.Y.), 360(6389), 656–660.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Stahl, S., & Stenson, C. (2013). Introduction to Topology and Geometry. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
An edited book
Lam, J., Li, K. C., Cheung, S. K. S., & Wang, F. L. (Eds.). (2013). Knowledge Sharing through Technology: 8th International Conference on Information and Communication Technology in Teaching and Learning, ICT 2013, Hong Kong, China, July 10-11, 2013, Revised Selected Papers (Vol. 407). Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer.
A chapter in an edited book
Divvala, S. K., Efros, A. A., & Hebert, M. (2012). How Important Are “Deformable Parts” in the Deformable Parts Model? In A. Fusiello, V. Murino, & R. Cucchiara (Eds.), Computer Vision – ECCV 2012. Workshops and Demonstrations: Florence, Italy, October 7-13, 2012, Proceedings, Part III (pp. 31–40). Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for The Journal of Primary Prevention.

Blog post
Andrew, D. (2016, August 17). Parasitic Flies, Zombified Ants, Predator Beetles – Insect Drama On Mexican Coffee Plantations. IFLScience. IFLScience. https://www.iflscience.com/plants-and-animals/parasitic-flies-zombified-ants-predator-beetles-insect-drama-on-mexican-coffee-plantations/. Accessed 30 October 2018

Reports

This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. (1996). State Infrastructure Banks: A Mechanism to Expand Federal Transportation Financing (No. RCED-97-9). Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Rodriguez, R. M. (2017). Experimental Evaluation of Cooling Effectiveness and Water Conservation in a Poultry House Using Flow Blurring Atomizers (Doctoral dissertation). University of South Florida, Tampa, FL.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
St. John Kelly, E. (1994, August 14). PLAYING IN THE NEIGHBORHOOD. New York Times, p. 139.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Gewin 2007).
This sentence cites two references (Gewin 2007; Sigala and Logothetis 2002).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Sigala and Logothetis 2002)
  • Three or more authors: (Schumer et al. 2018)

About the journal

Full journal titleThe Journal of Primary Prevention
AbbreviationJ. Prim. Prev.
ISSN (print)0278-095X
ISSN (online)1573-6547
ScopePublic Health, Environmental and Occupational Health

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