How to format your references using the The Journal of Primary Prevention citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for The Journal of Primary Prevention. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Davé, R. (2015). Computational astrophysics: Monstrous galaxies unmasked. Nature, 525(7570), 465–466.
A journal article with 2 authors
Galun, R., & Ole-MoiYoi, O. K. (2003). Obituary: Thomas Risley Odhiambo (1931-2003). Nature, 425(6954), 142.
A journal article with 3 authors
Hibbett, D. S., Gilbert, L. B., & Donoghue, M. J. (2000). Evolutionary instability of ectomycorrhizal symbioses in basidiomycetes. Nature, 407(6803), 506–508.
A journal article with 8 or more authors
Zhao, Y.-Y., Inoue, A., Chang, C., Liu, J., Shen, B., Wang, X., & Li, R.-W. (2014). Composition effect on intrinsic plasticity or brittleness in metallic glasses. Scientific reports, 4, 5733.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Promislow, S. D. (2010). Fundamentals of Actuarial Mathematics. Chichester, UK: John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
An edited book
Bertino, E. (2010). Security for Web Services and Service-Oriented Architectures. (L. Martino, F. Paci, & A. Squicciarini, Eds.). Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer.
A chapter in an edited book
Moskowitz, H. S., & Grandis, J. R. (2011). Oncogenomics/Proteomics of Head and Neck Cancers. In J. Bernier (Ed.), Head and Neck Cancer: Multimodality Management (pp. 81–91). New York, NY: Springer.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for The Journal of Primary Prevention.

Blog post
Andrew, D. (2016, October 11). After Our Universe’s Cosmic Dawn, What Happened To All Its Original Hydrogen? IFLScience. IFLScience. Accessed 30 October 2018


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. (2002). DCPS: Limitation of Attorneys’ Fees for Fiscal Years 1999 through 2001 (No. GAO-03-224R). Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Shipe, R. L. (2015). Creating productive ambiguity: A visual research narrative (Doctoral dissertation). University of Arizona, Tucson, AZ.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Barry, E. (2013, March 6). Dancer Held in Acid Attack on Bolshoi Director. New York Times, p. A1.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Davé 2015).
This sentence cites two references (Davé 2015; Galun and Ole-MoiYoi 2003).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Galun and Ole-MoiYoi 2003)
  • Three or more authors: (Zhao et al. 2014)

About the journal

Full journal titleThe Journal of Primary Prevention
AbbreviationJ. Prim. Prev.
ISSN (print)0278-095X
ISSN (online)1573-6547
ScopePublic Health, Environmental and Occupational Health

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