How to format your references using the The Journal of Primary Prevention citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for The Journal of Primary Prevention. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Ahnert, S. E. (2014). Generalised power graph compression reveals dominant relationship patterns in complex networks. Scientific reports, 4, 4385.
A journal article with 2 authors
Temmerman, S., & Kirwan, M. L. (2015). NATURAL HAZARDS. Building land with a rising sea. Science (New York, N.Y.), 349(6248), 588–589.
A journal article with 3 authors
Chen, C., Bobisch, C. A., & Ho, W. (2009). Visualization of Fermi’s golden rule through imaging of light emission from atomic silver chains. Science (New York, N.Y.), 325(5943), 981–985.
A journal article with 8 or more authors
Osaka, M., Yaoi, K., Minamoto, T., & Osaka, N. (2014). Serial changes of humor comprehension for four-frame comic Manga: an fMRI study. Scientific reports, 4, 5828.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Eichhorn, M. P. (2016). Natural Systems. Chichester, UK: John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
An edited book
Healy, L. (2015). Atlas of Human Pluripotent Stem Cells in Culture. (L. Ruban, Ed.). Boston, MA: Springer US.
A chapter in an edited book
Falez, F., & Papalia, M. (2005). Le vie di accesso nelle artroprotesi di ginocchio di primo impianto. In N. Pace (Ed.), La protesi di ginocchio di primo impianto (pp. 63–82). Milano: Springer.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for The Journal of Primary Prevention.

Blog post
Luntz, S. (2015, March 3). Watch A Redback Spider Try To Take Down A Snake. IFLScience. IFLScience. Accessed 30 October 2018


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. (1978). Development of Nontactical Secure Voice Systems (No. LCD-78-129-II). Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Parker, E. C. (2010). Perceptions of youth with diabetes and their parents/guardians about youth eating habits and nutrition-related difficulties (Doctoral dissertation). California State University, Long Beach, Long Beach, CA.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Kanter, J. (2017, March 6). E.U. Moves to Set Up Military Training. New York Times, p. A6.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Ahnert 2014).
This sentence cites two references (Ahnert 2014; Temmerman and Kirwan 2015).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Temmerman and Kirwan 2015)
  • Three or more authors: (Osaka et al. 2014)

About the journal

Full journal titleThe Journal of Primary Prevention
AbbreviationJ. Prim. Prev.
ISSN (print)0278-095X
ISSN (online)1573-6547
ScopePublic Health, Environmental and Occupational Health

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