How to format your references using the The Journal of Primary Prevention citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for The Journal of Primary Prevention. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Korb, J. (2014). Engineering. Robots acting locally and building globally. Science (New York, N.Y.), 343(6172), 742–743.
A journal article with 2 authors
Kazmierczak, J., & Altermann, W. (2002). Neoarchean biomineralization by benthic cyanobacteria. Science (New York, N.Y.), 298(5602), 2351.
A journal article with 3 authors
Girart, J. M., Rao, R., & Marrone, D. P. (2006). Magnetic fields in the formation of sun-like stars. Science (New York, N.Y.), 313(5788), 812–814.
A journal article with 8 or more authors
Pelaz, S., Ditta, G. S., Baumann, E., Wisman, E., & Yanofsky, M. F. (2000). B and C floral organ identity functions require SEPALLATA MADS-box genes. Nature, 405(6783), 200–203.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Wells, A. R., & Chiang, K. (2017). Monetizing Your Data. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
An edited book
Lytras, M. D., Carroll, J. M., Damiani, E., Tennyson, R. D., Avison, D., Vossen, G., & Ordonez De Pablos, P. (Eds.). (2008). The Open Knowlege Society. A Computer Science and Information Systems Manifesto: First World Summit on the Knowledge Society, WSKS 2008, Athens, Greece, September 24-26, 2008. Proceedings (Vol. 19). Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer.
A chapter in an edited book
Jiang, Z. (2005). Routing in 2-D Meshes: A Tutorial. In Y. Pan, D. Chen, M. Guo, J. Cao, & J. Dongarra (Eds.), Parallel and Distributed Processing and Applications: Third International Symposium, ISPA 2005, Nanjing, China, November 2-5, 2005. Proceedings (pp. 19–20). Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for The Journal of Primary Prevention.

Blog post
Davis, J. (2015, August 19). E-Cigarettes “Around 95% Less Harmful” Than Regular Smoking. IFLScience. IFLScience. Accessed 30 October 2018


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. (2014). FAA Reauthorization Act: Progress and Challenges Implementing Various Provisions of the 2012 Act (No. GAO-14-285T). Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
McCullough, J. (2009). Functional outcomes and patient satisfaction. A retrospective study to determine if these factors are correlated in a clinical setting. A project report (Doctoral dissertation). California State University, Long Beach, Long Beach, CA.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Rothenberg, B. (2017, June 3). Murray Pounces After del Potro’s First-Set Stumble. New York Times, p. SP6.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Korb 2014).
This sentence cites two references (Kazmierczak and Altermann 2002; Korb 2014).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Kazmierczak and Altermann 2002)
  • Three or more authors: (Pelaz et al. 2000)

About the journal

Full journal titleThe Journal of Primary Prevention
AbbreviationJ. Prim. Prev.
ISSN (print)0278-095X
ISSN (online)1573-6547
ScopePublic Health, Environmental and Occupational Health

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